Association of Maternal Serum Vitamin D Level with Risk of Pregnancy‑Related Complications and Neonatal Anthropometric Measures: A Prospective Observational Study

Hossein Hajianfar, Ahmad Esmailzadeh, Awat Feizi, Zahra Shahshahan, Leila Azadbakht


Background: Body of evidence is increasing about the importance of Vitamin D (VD) for
normal development of the fetus and for maternal health. As limited data are available regarding
the association between maternal VD level and pregnancy‑related complications and neonatal
anthropometric measures, the present study aimed to evaluate the neonatal anthropometric measures
including weight, high, and head circumference and pregnancy‑related complications such as
preeclampsia, blood pressure, gestational diabetes mellitus, and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy with
25(OH)VD level.

Methods: The current prospective observational study was conducted among 812
Iranian pregnant women during the first trimester in Isfahan, Iran. Needed data were collected using
validated questionnaires and biochemical examinations.

Results: Overall, this study demonstrated
an inverse significant association between VD level and chance of having low‑weight infant in the
adjusted model (odds ratio [OR]: 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.004–0.26, P < 0.001) in
the first VD assessment. The same results were obtained in the second VD assessment (OR: 0.08,
95% CI: 0.01–0.40, P < 0.01). However, such associations were not seen about other neonatal
measures and pregnancy‑related complications.

Conclusions: We found that low maternal VD level
might be associated with risk of low‑weight infant. Such findings could be considered to implement
informative interventional programs to control newborn adverse outcomes. Further studies are
required to confirm these findings.

Keywords: Maternal Vitamin D, neonatal anthropometric measures, pregnancy complications

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