Psychiatric Co-morbidities among Patients with Select Non Communicable Diseases in a Coastal City of South India

Vaman Kulkarni, Palanivel Chinnakali, Tanuj Kanchan, Abhijith Rao, Madhava Shenoy, Mohan Kumar Papanna

Abstract


Background: Psychiatric illnesses are an important group of co‑morbidities that can occur among patients with non‑communicable diseases (NCDs). Both these chronic conditions have an important implication in terms of quality of life, general well-being and cost of treatment and general longevity of the patient. The objectives of our study were to assess the burden of psychiatric co‑morbidities among patients with select NCDs and to identify the determinants associated with them.

Methods: A cross‑sectional study was conducted at the outpatient departments (OPDs) of Government District Hospital, Mangalore. The study was conducted among patients with select NCDs viz. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart diseases and their combinations attending OPDs of Government District Hospital, Mangalore. Participants were interviewed using Patient Health Questionnaire‑Somatic, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.0 (SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11th floor, Chicago, IL 60606‑6412). Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to test the association between different variables.

Results: Among the 282 study participants, psychiatric illnesses observed were somatization (n = 99, 35.1%), anxiety (n = 54, 19.1%) and depression (n = 82, 29.1%). Bivariate analysis showed significant negative association (P <0.05) between psychiatric illness and factors such as education, marital status, age <60 years, duration of illness of <10 years. However, on multivariate analysis only marital status (odds ratio [OR]: 0.500, confidence interval [CI]: 0.321‑0.777, P = 0.002) and duration of illness (OR: 0.651, CI: 0.439‑0.967, P = 0.032) were found to be significantly associated negatively with depression and anxiety.

Keywords: Mental health, non‑communicable diseases, psychiatric illnesses, South India

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