Comparison of three methods in improving Bag Mask Ventilation

Samad EJ Golzari, Hassan Soleimanpour, Hamidreza Mehryar, Shaker Salarilak, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Jafar Rahimi Panahi, Mohammadreza Afhami, Majid Sabahi, Zahra Hassani


Background: Increasedlife expectancy in populations has brought along specific new scenarios in the fields of medicine for the elderly; prevalence of physical complications such as edentulism and patients with dentures is growing. Management of anesthesia and ventilation in this group of patients has turned into a great challenge. Some researchers suggest dentures to be left in place during bag‑mask ventilation; yet, no unanimous agreement exists in this regard.

Methods: In a single blind randomized clinical trial, we
studied 300 patients with ASA class I, II (American Society of
Anesthesiologists), Mallampati class (I, II) and aged over 55 years in three groups. After induction of anesthesia, in group G dentures were removed and in each buccal space an eight‑layer 10 × 10 cm gauze and an oral airway were placed. In group D, the dentures and an oral airway were left in place. In group C (control), after removing dentures just an appropriate oral airway was placed. Then, each three group underwent bag‑mask ventilation. Success of bag‑mask ventilation (BMV) was considered as increase in end‑tidal carbon dioxide to more than 20 mmHg and back to baseline with fresh gas flow of 3 L/min and adjustable pressure limiting valve pressure of 20 cm H2O. Success rates were evaluated between groups.

Results: Effective BMV was possible in 91 (91%), 64 (64%)
and 41 (41%) patients in groups G, D and C respectively. The
differences were statistically significant. Successful BMV rate
was significantly higher in female patients in group G compared to group C; 43/44 versus 25/46 individuals, P = 0.0001, odds ratio = 0.03, 95% confidence interval (0.00, 0.22).

Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag‑mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.

Keywords: Bag‑mask ventilation, dentures, edentulous patients,
end‑tidal carbon dioxide, folded gauze

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