The determinants and scope of public health interventions to tackle the global problem of hypertension: A review

Shrivastava Saurabh R, Shrivastava Prateek S, Ramasamy Jegadeesh


Background: Hypertension is a significant public health concern of world‑wide distribution and is also the most common cardiovascular disease risk factor. Adequate control of blood pressure is a critical element in the prevention of hypertension induced‑organ damage and life‑threatening complications. Prevention of hypertension is possible and early detection and effective treatment can significantly reduce the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes.

Methods: An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in PubMed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines. Keywords used in the search included hypertension, cardiovascular disease, public health, life‑style modifications and awareness. Overall 51 articles were selected and analyzed.

Results: Multiple socio‑demographic and potential risk factors have been recognized in the causation and determining the long‑term outcomes of the disease world‑wide. As the natural history of hypertension is complex and etiology is multi‑factorial the strategy to combat also should be multi‑pronged based on the trends and magnitude of the disease in variable settings.

Conclusions: To conclude, although progress has been observed in the area of awareness, treatment and control, the need continues to be high for sustainable and cost‑effective interventions that will ultimately halt and reverse the rising tide of hypertension prevalence. Population‑based health education, dietary and life‑style modification and pharmacological therapy are all effective measures to reduce the prevalence and increase the control rate of hypertension.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, public health

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