Management of Hypertension in Children with Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure

Elaheh Malakan Rad, Farahnak Assadi


Although primary chronic hypertension (HTN) is increasingly common in adolescence, secondary forms of HTN are more common among children. Primary HTN is associated with being overweight and/or a positive family history of HTN. Carotid intima-media thickness, a known risk factor for atherosclerosis is frequent in both adults and children with HTN and other associated cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is also a common finding in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed HTN. Children with certain medical conditions such as congenital heart disease and Kawasaki disease can develop premature atherosclerosis heart disease that may lead to coronary heart disease and heart failure. Life-style interventions are recommended for all children with HTN, with pharmacologic therapy added for symptomatic children based on the presence of co-morbidities. As an example, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blocker and/or calcium channel blockers would be best for children with CV risk factors such as diabetes or renal disease, whereas an ACE inhibitor in combination with a beta-blocker and diuretics including spironolactone are recommended for patients with heart failure and reduced LV ejection fraction. This report will summarize new developments in the management of pediatric HTN complicated with CV disease and heart failure and will address the appropriate antihypertensive therapy that could potentially reduce the future burden of adult CV disease.Keywords: Atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, heart failure,hypertension

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