Prevalence of Prehypertension and Hypertension in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

Zahra Fallah, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Ramin Heshmat, Gelayol Ardalan, Roya Kelishadi


Background: The global health burden has faced toward non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It is suggested that adulthood blood pressure (BP) is tracked from childhood. This study aims to evaluate the mean BP and the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the Iranian pediatric population.

Methods: In a national survey as the 4th phase of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable diseases study and through random multistage cluster sampling, a national sample of Iranian school students, aged 6-18 years, were recruited. Data gathered by means of modified World Health Organization Global school-based student health survey questionnaire, a weight disorders determinants questionnaire and anthropometric and BP measurements. Prehypertension (HTN) was defined as BP equal or greater than 90th age and sex specific percentile or ≥120/80 mmHg and HTN was defined as BP ≥95th percentile.

Results: A total of 13486 students entered the study (49.2% girls, 75.6% urban). Mean age of participants was 11.47 ± 3.36 years. A total rate of 4.17% (3.84-4.52 95% CI) for high systolic BP (SBP), 4.33% (3.99-4.68) for high diastolic BP (DBP) and 6.88% (6.45-7.32) for high SBP and/or DBP was depicted.

Conclusions: The prevalence rate of high BP (pre-HTN together with HTN) is substantially high in this population. It is needed to study the causative situations and implement relevant interventions. 

Keywords: Adolescent, blood pressure, child, hypertension, Iran, pre-hypertension

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