The Prevalence of Pre-hypertension in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Farzaneh Rohani, Nakysa Hooman, Sedighe Moradi, Mehdi Mobarra, Mehri Najafi zadeh


Background: Hypertension is more common in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) than the general population. The aim of this study was to detect the pre-hypertensive stage in children with T1D and to evaluate its correlation with diabetic nephropathy compared to non-diabetic children.

Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in an out-patient clinic of a university hospital. A total of 62 which consists of 36 males and 26 females patients with stable T1D with a median age of 13 year and 42 age - sex-matched healthy children were entered in the study between September 2008 and February 2011. Three readings of blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood sample was drawn for hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), creatinine and a 24 hurine aliquot was collected to measure microalbumin, creatinine and volume to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

Results:From 62 children with T1DM, 25.8% were in pre-hypertensive stage, 4.8% Stage 1, and 1.6% Stage 2. In controls, 1 (2.4%) out of 42 children was in pre-hypertensive stage (P < 0.0001). Abnormal blood pressures were correlatedwith eGFR and the duration of disease (P < 0.05), but there were not associated with microalbominuria or HbA1C level.

Conclusions: There was a higher rate of early stage of high normal blood pressure in children with T1DM compared with the healthy controls and this abnormality was only correlated with puberty stage and glomerular filtration rate.

Keywords: Blood pressure, chronic, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathies, glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, kidney failure

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