Vitamins A and E Deficiencies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, North‑West Nigeria

Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa


Background: Vitamins A and E deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and plasma levels are low in pregnancy. This study was undertaken to determine the serum Vitamins
A and E status among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano and to provide the necessary information needed to suggest the supplementation of Vitamins A and E during pregnancy.

Methods: The study was done in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu Local Government Area. Dawakin Kudu, a rural community in Kano State is about 12 km from Kano metropolis which is the most populous city in Nigeria and commercial nerve center of Northern Nigeria. Most of the women are housewives, however, some engage in subsistent farming and petty trading. This was a prospective study of 200 pregnant women at various maternal
ages, gestational ages, and parities. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 200 respondents which showed age and parity distributions. Determination of Serum Vitamins A and E was done using methods
of Bessey, et al. and Tsen. Ethical approval for the research was obtained from General Hospital, Dawakin Kudu, Kano. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17 statistical software (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). Descriptive statistics was done. Mean serum Vitamins A and E concentration between trimesters were compared using two‑way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Majority of the women were aged 20–39 years with mean of 23.67 ± 6.11. Most were in the 1–4 parity range. Mean birth weight was 2.42 ± 0.74 kg. Above 65% were deficient
while 34.5% had normal levels of Vitamin A and 51% were deficient of serum Vitamin E. Serum Vitamins A and E levels showed a marked reduction from first through third trimester.
The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins A and E concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the first trimester. Therefore, further studies should evaluate the value of Vitamins A and E supplementation during pregnancy especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate.

Keywords: Antenatalclinic, E deficiencies, North‑West Nigeria,
pregnant women, Vitamin A

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