Relationship of Food Security with Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in Tehranian Adults

Majid Hasan‑Ghomi, Hanieh‑Sadat Ejtahed, Parvin Mirmiran, Firozeh Hosseini‑Esfahani, Narges Sarbazi, Fereidoun Azizi, Saeed Sadeghian

Abstract


Background: As food insecurity has negative effects on health, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between household food security and type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related risk factors.

Methods: In this case‑control study, 200 individuals with and 200 individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged over 40 years, were randomly selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The questionnaire on household food security proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture was completed for them by trained personnel. Logistic regression was used to determine the variable that had the most significant relationship with food security status.

Results: The average of food security score was 2.38 ± 2.0 in non‑diabetic and 2.25 ± 2.0 in diabetic individuals (P = 0.6). In both groups, the risk for food insecurity in women was more than in men. In the diabetic group, being single and having education levels below high school increased the risk of food insecurity. In the non‑diabetic group, the risk of food insecurity in obese individuals was 3.3 times higher than normal individuals (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–4.1).

Conclusions: There were no significant differences in food security levels of diabetic and non‑diabetic groups. However, some risk factors of type 2 diabetes including sex, marital status, educational level, and obesity were associated with food insecurity.

Keywords: Food security, obesity, Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, type 2 diabetes mellitus


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