Cardiovascular Risk in Men Aged Over 40 in Boa Vista, Brazil

Mário Maciel de Lima Junior, Emanuel Araújo Bezerra, José Geraldo Ticianeli


Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of disease in the developed world. Early detection and risk prediction are a key component in reducing cardiovascular mortality. The Framingham Risk Score uses age, sex,  cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking to calculate the 10‑year risk probability of developing cardiovascular disease for a given patient. The aim of this study was to examine  cardiovascular disease risk in men aged over 40 years in Boa Vista, Brazil and identify socioeconomic factors contributing to the risk.

Methods: This was an epidemiological, cross‑sectional, descriptive study. Physical examination and questionnaire survey were conducted on the participants.

Results: Of the 598 participants (average age = 55.38 ± 10.77 years), 346 completed all the examinations and answered the survey, while 252 completed the survey and the physical examinations but did not undertake the laboratory tests. A large proportion of participants were overweight (42.6%) or obese (23.6%), 14.5% were hypertensive, and 71.9% were prehypertensive. Consumption of red meat and junk food was high, while participation in the exercise was low. Framingham scores ranged from −3 to 13 (mean score: 3.86 ± 3.16). A total of 204 participants (34.1%) had a low risk of cardiovascular disease, 98 (16.4%) had a medium risk, and 44 (7.4%) possessed high risk. Increased abdominal circumference (P = 0.013), resting pulse (P = 0.002), and prostate‑specific antigen levels (P < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Conclusions: Our study highlights a worrying trend in increasing obesity and hypertension, most likely associated with increasingly poor diet and reduced participation in exercises. As the Brazilian population ages, this will drive increasing rates of cardiovascular mortality unless these trends are reversed. This study suggests that such campaigns should focus on men over the age of 40, who are married or divorced and of lower income.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease risk, Framingham score, hypertension, obesity, socioeconomic factors

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