The Frequency Distribution of Celiac Autoantibodies in Alopecia Areata

Fatemeh Mokhtari, Tayebeh Panjehpour, Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini, Sayed Mohsen Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Marzieh Matin

Abstract


Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a noncicatricial (nonscarring) alopecia. The association
between AA and celiac disease (CD) is debatable. Several studies declare the relationship
between AA and CD as measurement of celiac autoantibodies (anti‑gliadin IgA and anti‑gliadin
IgG), but a few studies consider anti‑tissue transglutaminase IgA. The aim of this study was
to evaluate the frequency distribution of celiac autoantibodies (all of them) in patients with AA
compared with controls.

Methods: This study is a case–control study. Thirty‑five patients entered in each group. Anti‑gliadin
IgA, anti‑gliadin IgG, and anti‑tissue transglutaminase IgA were tested in all patients. Samples
were examined in ELISA method with binding site’s kits, and the result was reported as positive/
negative. Finally, the frequency distribution of autoantibodies was examined.

Results: The age average did not show a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.62). In
addition, there was no significant difference between the two groups based on gender (P = 0.15).
The prevalence of antibody in case and control groups was 2.85% and 0%, respectively. There
was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.31).

Conclusions: There may be a relationship between CD and AA, but the absence of statistical
association between AA and CD does not mean that there is no relationship between gluten and
AA in certain patients. Thus, we have shown here that the biological tests to search for CD do not
bring information and proof enough, and it is why we recommend another approach to disclose
gluten intolerance in AA patients.

Keywords: Alopecia areata, autoantibodies, celiac, frequency distribution


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