Zika Virus Diseases – The New Face of an Ancient Enemy as Global Public Health Emergency (2016): Brief Review and Recent Updates

Deepak Passi, Sarang Sharma, Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Musharib Ahmed


Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito. It presents as flu‑like symptoms lasting for 5–7 days and shows potential association with neurological and autoimmune complications such as congenital microcephaly and adult paralysis disorder, Guillain–Barré syndrome. Treatment measures are conservative as the disease is self‑limiting. ZIKV earlier affected several tropical regions of Africa and Asia from 1951 to 2006. Subsequently, it moved out from these regions to land as outbreaks in Yap Island, French Polynesia, South America, and most recently in Brazil. The WHO declared it as an international public health emergency in 2016 and an extraordinary event with recommendations for improving communications, tightening vigil on ZIKV infections, and improving mosquito control measures. The authors in this article
aim to briefly discuss ZIKV infection, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and prevention.

Keywords: Aedes, arbovirus, congenital microcephaly, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Zika virus

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