Association of Lifestyle Risk Factors with Metabolic Syndrome Components: A Cross‑sectional Study in Eastern India

Pragya Verma, Ratan K Srivastava, Dharmendra Jain


Background: Approximately 20%–25% of the world adult population and nearly 30% of Indians have metabolic syndrome disorder. Our objective was designed to fnd out the association between important nutrients and potential lifestyle risk factors such as diet, physical inactivity, and smoking
and alcohol consumption with the number of metabolic syndrome components.

Methods: This was a cross‑sectional study. A total of 205 patients of metabolic syndrome were enrolled for this study. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was done on the basis of National Cholesterol Education
Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (NCEP ATP III 2004). Dietary data were collected with the validated food frequency questionnaire and 24 h dietary recall method, and the nutrient intake was calculated with the specially designed software.

Results: Unhealthy dietary habits were seen more among the participants who had more than 3 risk factors. Results showed the odds of taking >5 times junk foods was 3 times higher (odds ratio [OR]: 2.97; 95% confdence interval [CI]: 1.61–5.47), and sweet dishes was 2.3 times higher (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.28–4.24) among the participants who had 4–5 risk factors. However, milk and dairy products > 4 servings/ day (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.175–1.67) and pulses and legumes more than 2 servings/day (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.25–1.29) was protective against hypertension. Mean carbohydrate, saturated fat, and sodium intake was signifcantly higher in the participants who had 4–5 metabolic risk factors
compared to 3 risk factors (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: It was concluded that low intake of fruits, vegetables, and higher intake of flesh food and inadequate physical activity signifcantly associated with the metabolic syndrome risk factors.

Keywords: Dietary pattern, hypertension, lifestyle risk factors, metabolic syndrome, physical activity

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