The Variations of Some Salivary Parameters as Probable Indices of the Hereditary Diabetes

Menicagli Roberto, Marotta Ortensio


Background: Diabetes has a genetic predisposition and is generally not diagnosed for many years because hyperglycemia develops gradually, without presenting the classic symptoms of diabetes. The aim of this study is to verify whether, in a potentially genetically predisposed population,
men and women under the age of 50 years, at the time of the study, not suffering from diabetes can be detected using parameters derived from initial metabolic alteration indices of the possible evolution of pathology.

Methods: In the hereditary and healthy group, salivary concentration of
malondialdehyde, total mucins, and pH were determined. All participants in the two groups had fasting glucose level below 110 mg/dL. The results were statistically analyzed using Pearson correlation test, Mann–Whitney test, and –Student’s t‑test.

Results: Salivary concentration of malondialdehyde statistically increased in the hereditary group vs the healthy group (P = 0.0368) as the mucins (P ≤ 0.005). The salivary pH decreased but, the values were not statistically signifcant (P = 0.085). Some alteration processes occur without increase in glucose levels, produced by changes in metabolic redox processes along with an increase in the salivary malondialdehyde index of oxidative stress in the body. The modifcation of the salivary buffer system lowers the pH, whereas increase in salivary mucins alters the value of spinnbarkeit, which measures the capacity of the mucous layer to adhere to the epithelium, causing alterations of the oral mucosa.

Conclusions: This study shows that it is possible to predict in hereditary predisposition conditions the development of diabetes, and the related dangerous consequences by monitoring two salivary
parameters – mucins and malondialdehyde.

Keywords: Diabetes, genetic predisposition, mucins free radicals

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