Continuous Movement Monitoring of Daily Living Activities for Prevention of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Review of Literature

Piergiorgio Francia, Alessandra De Bellis, Giuseppe Seghieri, Anna Tedeschi, Giulia Iannone, Roberto Anichini, Massimo Gulisano

Abstract


Lower extremity ulcers represent the most ominous, feared, and costly complications of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of daily life physical activities (PAs) and continuous movement monitoring (CMM) in the prevention of foot ulcers. Peripheral neuropathy
and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute, in turn, to the development of additional risk factors such as foot deformities and/or joint and muscular alterations. Moreover, a defcit of balance, posture abnormalities, followed by gait alterations, increases the
risk of ulceration. PA can play a key role in the management of patients with diabetes and in the prevention of ulcers; however, even if it has been reported that some of these risk factors signifcantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET), the real preventive role of ET has not yet
been demonstrated. These uncertain results can occur due to some limitations in the management of the same relationship between PA and diabetic foot prevention. Technological advances during the last years enable timely management of overall daily PA. The use of these modern technologies and devices allows CMM assessment and description of daily PA even in the long term. The data collected from these devices can be used to properly manage patients’ PA and thus contribute to the
prevention of foot ulcers.

Keywords: Continuous movement monitoring, daily lifestyle, diabetic foot ulcer, exercise therapy, physical activity, prevention


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