Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy, Insulin‑like Growth Factor 1, Myostatin and Follistatin in Healthy and Sarcopenic Elderly Men: The Effect of Whole‑body Resistance Training

Raoof Negaresh, Rouholah Ranjbar, Julien S Baker, Abdolhamid Habibi, Motahare Mokhtarzade, Mohammad Momen Gharibvand, Andrej Fokin


Background: Sarcopenia describes the inevitable deterioration in muscle mass and strength that accompanies biological aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training (RT) on quadriceps hypertrophy and related biochemistry in sarcopenic and healthy elderly men.

Methods: A total of 31 elderly men (55–70 years old) were classifed as sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic and were divided into two groups. Both groups participated in a progressive RT program for 8 weeks.

Results: Data indicated that the strength in the sarcopenic group increased
more than the healthy group (P < 0.05). Quadriceps cross‑sectional area also increased more in the healthy group (P < 0.05). Myostatin concentration decreased in both groups after training (P < 0.05).
Follistatin and testosterone increased in the healthy group; in contrast, only testosterone increased in the sarcopenic group after training (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The fndings from this study suggest that RT improves muscle cross‑sectional area and biomarker‑related muscle loss in both healthy and
sarcopenic elderly men. The fndings also demonstrate that growth factor profles at baseline and changes in testosterone levels play an important role in muscle hypertrophy observed in both groups.

Keywords: Aging, follistatin, hypertrophy, myostatin, resistance training, sarcopenia

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