Association of Vitamin D Status and Metabolic Syndrome Components in Iranian Children

Saeed Ghobadi, Zahra Hassanzadeh Rostami, Mohammad Salehi Marzijarani, Shiva Faghih

Abstract


Background: Recently, it has been found that Vitamin D can affect cardiometabolic risk factors. However, these fndings have not been confrmed in younger population. We aimed to assess the associations of serum 25‑hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in Iranian children.

Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted on 240 children aged 6–9 years old. Anthropometric indices (weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat), biochemical parameters (low‑density lipoprotein, high‑density lipoprotein, triglyceride [TG], fasting blood sugar, and serum 25(OH)D), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) blood pressure, and dietary intake and physical activity were measured. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of MetS components and serum 25(OH)D. Results: Mean
age of children was 7.8 ± 1.06 year. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 14.6 ± 10.64 ng/ml, and the prevalence of Vitamin D defciency (serum 25(OH)D lower than 10 ng/ml) was 41.66%. Dietary intake of Vitamin D was 1.91 ± 1.8 mcg/day. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with TG (β = -0.16; CI: -0.27, -0.04) after adjusting by age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, and some dietary components. Serum 25(OH)D was negatively associated with SBP (β = -0.02;
CI: (-0.05, -0.004), and DBP (β = -0.02; CI: -0.05, -0.003); however, it was not signifcant anymore after adjustment for sodium, potassium, and fber.

Conclusions: Vitamin D defciency is alarming among Iranian children. Among the components of MetS, lower serum Vitamin D concentration was only associated with TG that could contribute in onset and progression of cardiometabolic disorders
later in life.

Keywords: Children, metabolic syndrome, triglyceride, Vitamin D


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