Epidemiological, Risk Factors, Clinical, and Laboratory Features of Brucellosis in the Southwest of Iran within 2009–2015

Mahmood Nabavi, Hossein Hatami, Hedayatollah Jamaliarand

Abstract


Background: Brucellosis is a serious disease affecting many individuals in the world and in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Kohgilouyeh and Boyerahmad province, southwest of Iran.

Methods: This retrospective descriptive‑analytic study included all individuals diagnosed with brucellosis during 2009–2015. The clinical and epidemiological information were gathered from recorded data available in the health center of Kohgilouyeh and Boyerahmad province, the southwest of Iran.

Results: The total number of patients diagnosed with brucellosis during the study period was 658, of whom, 339 (51.5%) were males. A total of 541 (82.2%) patients resided in rural and tribal areas, and the others lived in urban regions. The mean age of diagnosis was 39.59 ± 17.28 years and the most prevalent age groups were 31–50 (277, 42.1%) and 11–30 (178, 27.1%)‑year olds. The most affected groups were housekeeper women (229, 34.8%) and ranchers (152, 23.1%). The
relationship between jobs and disease was signifcant (P < 0.001). Transmission through either suspected dairy products (582, 88.4%) or close contact with infected livestock (537, 81.6%) comprised the most common routes of brucellosis dissemination. The clinical presentation was acute in the majority (581, 88.3%) of the patients. The highest titer for both wright and Coombs wright tests was 1:320. The most frequently administrated drugs were doxycycline and streptomycin (183,
27.8%). The most commonly observed clinical symptom was bone pain (477, 72.5%). Arthritis (12, 1.8%) comprised the most frequent drug‑associated complication. Either relapse or treatment failure was recorded collectively in four (0.6%) patients.

Conclusions: Due to the prevalence of the disease in the nomadic areas, timely detection and control of the disease is essential. Furthermore, livestock
vaccination along with educating farmers and physicians about brucellosis can be helpful.

Keywords: Brucellosis, clinical, epidemiology, Iran, risk factors


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