Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes

Sara Beigrezaei, Reza Ghiasvand, Awat Feizi, Bijan Iraj

Abstract


Introduction: Increasing rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence during the recent years has caused concern about signifcant risks for the public health. Dietary patterns have recently attracted great attention in the evaluation of the relationship between diet and health. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the major identifed dietary patterns and T2D.

Methods: In this matched case–control study, 315 individuals (125 newly diagnosed cases and 190 controls); 18–60 years of age were selected. A valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary intakes of individuals. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured with standard instructions and body mass index and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. The relationship between major food patterns and T2D was assessed by logistic regression analysis.

Results: Two dietary patterns were identifed: healthy and Western dietary patterns. The second tertile of the healthy dietary pattern had signifcantly association with decreased risk of T2D in the crude model (Odds ratios [OR]: 0.51, 95% Confdence interval [CI]: 0.29–0.9; P for trend = 0.018), Model II (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.27–0.9; P for trend = 0.019), and Model III (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.23–1.4 P for trend = 0.048). The inverse association of the second tertile of Western dietary pattern score with the T2D was signifcant in crude (OR: 9.25, 95% CI: 4.95–
17.4; P for trend <0.001) and multivariable‑adjusted model (OR: 16.65, 95% CI: 2.99–92.84; P for trend <0001).

Conclusions: Our study found an inverse relationship between adherence of
healthy pattern and direct association with Western dietary pattern and the risk of T2D.

Keywords: Dietary patterns, factor analysis, incidence, type 2 diabetes


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