Investigation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in patients admitted in Antani Hospital, Kabul, Afghanistan, 2017–2018

Hossein Hatami, Shohra Qaderi, Ahmad Murad Omid

Abstract


Background: Crimean‑Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most medically significant hemorrhagic fever. Afghanistan as an endemic region of CCHF has shown a rapidly growing incidence of the CCHF recently, but there is no data on the characteristic of the disease in this country, here we study the epidemiological, clinical, and paraclinical features of this disease in patients with CCHF, based on the collected data from the patients document records from March 2017 to January 2018 in the referral infectious diseases hospital of Afghanistan (Kabul Antani Hospital).

Methods: A cross‑sectional study in 120 patients admitted in Kabul ANTANI hospital was carried out from March 2017 to January 2018. All of the patients were included based on the standard case definitions by World Health Organization.

Results: Among the 120 patients admitted to CCHF ward, 29 were confirmed by ELISA (18% IgM, 8% IgG+) and the reminders defined as “probable cases” according to WHO case definition. Case fatality rates were calculated as 15% and the overall mean ages were 35 years. The peak of the disease incidence occurred between August and July. Almost all patients reported fever, bleeding, and thrombocytopenia.

Conclusion: Early detection plays an important role in patients’ outcome. Considering that the most cases of the disease are associated with some contacts around Eid‑Adha and death attributable to CCHF usually occur
in the first 7 days of disease onset, educating population, and especially slaughters, gloves using by housewives during contacts with meat or animal products, and early detection and immediate treatment would have essential roles in primary and secondary prevention of CCHF. Hemorrhagic
manifestations and low platelet count provide a clue to early detection of disease. Vaginal bleeding can be a sign of CCHF and needs immediate action.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Crimean‑Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mediterranean region, uterine hemorrhage


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