Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Oral Health Status among Iranian Women

Fahimeh Rezazadeh, Sara Emad, Mohammadreza Emad

Abstract


Background: In the present research, we aimed to evaluate dental and periodontal condition in relation to bone mineral density (BMD), to determine the possible association between oral health status and bone density.

Methods: Fifty‑nine women aged older than 30 years, who had BMD assessment, were enrolled in the study. They were given dental and periodontal examination by the means of oral hygiene index (OHI), periodontal disease index (PDI), and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). Participants answered a questionnaire regarding oral hygiene condition, socio‑economic status, and physical activity level. Their BMD using dual X‑ray energy absorptiometry in femoral and spinal regions was also recorded.

Result: In this research, there was a negative correlation between DMFT and T‑score of spine and femur but not with Z‑scores. There was no association found between PDI and T‑scores or Z‑scores for BMD (P > 0.05). In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between number of missing teeth and T‑score of both femoral and spinal regions; however, such an association was not found with Z‑scores. In addition, a strong positive correlation was observed between OHI and DMFT.

Conclusions: This investigation suggests a negative association between bone mineral status and oral health condition regarding DMFT and number of missing teeth. It could be concluded that inadequate bone mass could coexist with higher number of missing teeth or a worse oral health condition; nevertheless, further studies are required to assess these relationships precisely.

Keywords: Absorptiometry, bone density: Oral health, dental caries, dual‑energy X‑ray absorptiometry scan, osteoporosis, periodontal diseases


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