Effects of Eugenol on Pain Response to the Formalin Test and Plasma Antioxidant Activity in High Fructose Drinking Water in Male Rats

Omid Ghofran, Tahereh Safari, Mohammad Reza Shahraki Safari


Background: Increased consumption of fructose in recent years has increased the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. In this syndrome, induction of oxidative stress, cellular dysfunction, and decrease of antioxidant capacity can change response to pain. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the antinociceptive and antioxidant effects of eugenol on metabolic syndrome induced by a fructose‑rich diet in rats.

Methods: The rats were randomly assigned to five groups, to be under experiment for eight weeks. The first, control group, the second fructose 10% plus tween 0.5% (Fr + veh), the third fructose 10% (Fr), and the fourth fructose 10% plus a single dose of eugenol 100 mg/kg (Fr + EoS). However, the fifth obtained fructose 10% plus a continuous dose of eugenol 20 mg/kg/day (Fr + EoC) for the last 10 days of the experiment. After formalin test, blood samples were taken from the animals’ hearts followed by analysis for biochemical factors.

Results: This study shows that fructose administration does not change any pain response and there are not any changes in pain response between Fr group and control group. However, treatment with single and continuous dose of eugenol in Fr + EoS and Fr + EoC groups significantly decreases response to pain in the first and second phase of formalin test in comparison with Fr group (P < 0.05). Continuous does of eugenol improved serum malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity levels in Fr + Eoc group in comparison with Fr group.

Conclusions: In the present work, new findings suggest the beneficial effects of eugenol in pain relief, improved serum glucose, insulin levels, and improved antioxidant activity in metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: Eugenol, metabolic syndrome, pain measurement

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