SARS‑CoV2 in Different Body Fluids, Risks of Transmission, and Preventing COVID-19: A Comprehensive Evidence‑Based Review

Gurusaravanan Kutti‑Sridharan, Rathnamitreyee Vegunta, Radhakrishna Vegunta, Babu P. Mohan, Venkata R. P. Rokkam


The world is combating a common and invisible enemy severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV2), a highly transmissible virus responsible for serious respiratory illness coronavirus disease‑2019 (COVID‑19). As with all respiratory viruses, public health measures are
focused on contact tracing, isolation, and treatment of affected individuals, who have respiratory symptoms. However, it is spreading efficiently, and it can be explained from its stealth transmission from presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Droplet and contact precautions are followed
universally. Healthcare workers are at higher risk of acquiring infection and they are additionally required to follow airborne and eye protection. Recent studies indicate viral particles can be isolated from many body fluids including feces, saliva, semen, and tears, suggesting transmission could be possibly occurring through some of these routes as well. We have done an evidence‑based review of all potential modes of transmission and discussed preventive measures to stop the spread. There is an urgent need for educating the healthcare professionals, governments, and public regarding other potential modes of transmission. Strict preventive measures need to be used to stop the spread.


COVID 19; novel coronavirus; Pandemics; SARS‑CoV2; transmission

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