Patterns of Body Mass Index, Percentage Body Fat, and Skinfold Thicknesses in 7‑ to 18‑Year‑Old Children and Adolescents from Indonesia

Janatin Hastuti, Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati, Rusyad Adi Suriyanto, Tunjung Wibowo, Neti Nurani, Madarina Julia

Abstract


Background: Body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness are widely used to evaluate body
composition. Information on patterns of skinfold thickness may help to understand changes in body
composition during growth. The objectives of this study were to observe patterns of BMI, percentage
body fat (%BF), and skinfold thicknesses of Indonesian children and adolescents aged 7–18 years.

Methods: Weight, height, and four skinfold thicknesses were measured in 2104 school children (924
boys, 1,180 girls) aged 7–18 years from Yogyakarta between 2015 and 2018. BMI and ratios between
central and peripheral skinfold thicknesses were determined. %BF was predicted using the equation
of Slaughter et al. Data were analyzed using analysis variance (ANOVA), independent sample
t‑test, and partial correlation (SPSS version 20.0).

Results: At 7–18 years, boys and girls showed
a comparable gain in BMI. The comparable gain in %BF between boys and girls only occurred
till age 10 and total skinfolds till age 11 years. While, %BF and skinfold thicknesses were higher
in girls at 12–17 years, central to peripheral skinfold ratio were higher in boys. Partial correlation
analyses showed that all skinfold thickness parameters and %BF were significantly correlated with
BMI (P < 0.001; r = 0.19–0.87).

Conclusions: The gain in BMI and skinfold thickness between the
ages of 7 and 18 years occurred in age‑ and sex‑specific patterns. Instead of comparable BMI, girls
showed higher means of total skinfold thickness from age 12 years, while boys had higher central to
peripheral adiposity ratio.

 


Keywords


Body mass index; children; growth patterns; percentage body fat; skinfold thickness

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