Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability Assessments for the Persian Version of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire‑Short Form

Shahram Ghorbani Behnam, Seyed A. Mousavi, Mohammad H. Emamian


Background: Craving is one of the diagnostic criteria for nicotine dependence. The aim of this study was Translating and Validating of Tobacco Craving Questionnaire‑Short Form (TCQ‑SF) on Persian.

Methods: Fifty smokers aged 15–65 years participated through a public invitation. The forward and backward translation was done according to Beaton`s guideline, then all smokers completed questionnaire, in non‑deprived and deprived states with a 1‑week interval. After expert committee confirmed forward and backward translation, construct validity evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), mean craving scores Independent sample T‑tests between high and low Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependent (FTND), and also, deprived and non‑deprived smokers. The reliability assessment was done by Intraclass coefficient (ICC) and mean craving scores paired sample t test between two deprived states. The Cronbach’s alpha was conducted for internal consistency.

Results: The consensus Persian version of the questionnaire was obtained. The CFA indicated a significant (P < 0.001) association of four latent variables with questionnaire structure. The significant (P < 0.001) difference between craving scores in Independent sample t tests indicated the construct validity as concurrent validity. There was no significant difference (P = 0.063) between two deprived states’ scores and ICC = 0.97, indicated questionnaire reliability. The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.89, shows good internal consistency.

Conclusions: The results confirmed the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire‑Short Form.


Appetite; cigars; Iran; nicotine; smokers

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