Congenital Hypothyroidism and its Related Factors in an Iranian Population: A Retrospective Study in Semnan (2011–2016)

Soraya Doustmohamadian, Sahar Mehrizi, Mohammad Naser Rahbar, Majid Mirmohammadkhani


Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an important and preventable cause of intellectual disability. This study determined the incidence of CH and its related factors in Semnan city in Iran.

Methods: All neonates born in Semnan from 2011 to 2016 who participated in a screening program for CH were evaluated to estimate the incidence of CH. In a nested case‑control study, all diagnosed CH cases were compared with a control group of healthy newborns. Statistical analysis used conditional logistic regression model with STATA‑14.

Results: 106 out of 17,507 neonates born in Semnan during 2011–2016 were diagnosed with CH (6.05 cases per 1,000 live births). Maternal parity (odds ratio [OR] =1.78, P = 0.044), birth weight (OR = 0.29, P = 0.001), parental history of thyroid disease (OR = 3.43, P = 0.001), father’s education (OR = 0.71, P = 0.003), father’s occupation (nonworker) (OR = 2.97, P = 0.001), and the presence of other anomalies (OR = 4.14, P = 0.037) were related to the incidence of CH.

Conclusions: The cumulative incidence of CH in Semnan was higher than in both the global and national statistics. Aside from well‑known medical determinants, some important social factors such as father’s occupation and education have a significant and independent relationship with occurrence of CH; rational attention should be given to them in health care programs to increase the effectiveness of preventative measures for CH.


Congenital hypothyroidism; incidence; Iran; risk factors

Full Text:



Esmailnasab N, Moasses G, Afkhamzadeh A. Investigation of

the risk factors for congenital hypothyroidism in the newborns in

Kurdistan Province. SJKU 2012;17:103-8.

Nasri P, Hashemipour M, Hovsepian S, Amini M, Heidari K,

Sajjadi S, et al. Comparison of urine and milk iodine

concentration among congenitally hypothyroid neonates and

their mothers and a control group. Iranian J Endocrinol Metab


Akha O, Shabani M, Kowsarian M, Ghafari V, Sajadi Saravi S.

Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Mazandaran

Province, Iran, 2008. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2011;21:63‑70.

Hashemipour M, Heidari Z, Feizi A, Amini M. Effect of

diagnostic and treatment factors on growth development

of children with congenital hypothyroidism: A prospective longitudinal study. IJEM 2015;17:261‑73.

Abedi M, Shahsavari S, Salehi R, Hedayati Nia S, Nasrollahi S,

Sadeghi S, et al. The study of prevalence and risk factors of

hypothyroidism in newborn screening program in Sanandaj city

in 2009‑2014. Zanco J Med Sci 2015;15:46‑51.

Büyükgebiz A. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism.

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2013;5(Suppl 1):8.

Ordookhani A, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Parental consanguinity:

A probable cause for the high incidence of permanent neonatal

hypothyroidism. IJEM 2003;5:293‑8.

Shojaeefar H, Yazdan Panah A, Vahdat S. Neonatal

hypothyroidism and its related factors in infants born in Yazd

Province during the years 2013 to 2014. TB 2017;15:135‑44.

Clague A, Thomas A. Neonatal biochemical screening for

disease. Clinica Chimica Acta 2002;315:99‑110.

Lotfi MH, Rahimi Pordanjani S, Moghtli M. The evaluate

prevalence growth disorders of weight, height and head

circumference first 5 years of life in children with congenital

hypothyroidism city of Yazd in 2014. RJMS 2016;23:34‑46.

Dalili S, Rezvany SM, Dadashi A, Medghalchi A, Mohammadi H,

Dalili H, et al. Congenital hypothyroidism: A review of the risk

factors. Acta Medica Iranica 2012:735‑9.

Namakin K, Sedighi E, Sharifzadeh G, Zardast M.

Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in South Khorasan

province (2006‑2010). J Birjand Univ Med Sci 2012;19:191‑9.

Rezaeian S, Moghimbeigi A, Esmailnasab N. Gender differences

in risk factors of congenital hypothyroidism: An interaction

hypothesis examination. Int J Endocrinol Metab 2014;12:e13946.

Rezaeian S, Poorolajal J, Moghimbegi A, Esmailnasab N. Risk

factors of congenital hypothyroidism using propensity score:

A matched case‑control study. J Res Health Sci 2013;13:151‑6.

Najafian B, Shahverdi E, Afsharpaiman S, Shohrati M, Karimi S,

Konjedi MA. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism

in a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. J Compr Ped


Baridkazemi S, Bahrami HR, Eftekhari Gol R, Mosa Farkhani E,

Hoseini SJ. Investigation of the risk factors for congenital

hypothyroidism in Iran: A population‑based case‑control study.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019;7:8951‑8.

Deladoëy J, Bélanger N, Van Vliet G. Random variability in

congenital hypothyroidism from thyroid dysgenesis over 16 years

in Quebec. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:3158‑61.

Harris KB, Pass KA. Increase in congenital hypothyroidism

in New York state and in the United States. Mol Genet Metab


Olivieri A, Medda E. Multiple factors influencing the incidence

of congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening.

Horm Res Paediat 2015;83:86‑93.

Deng K, He C, Zhu J, Liang J, Li X, Xie X, et al. Incidence

of congenital hypothyroidism in China: Data from the national

newborn screening program, 2013–2015. J Pediatr Endocrinol

Metab 2018;31:601‑8.

Alenazi SA, Abdalla SH, Mohamed HT, Balla AA,

Abukanna AM. Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in

Northern border region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Indian

Pediatr 2017;54:154‑5.

Hinton CF, Harris KB, Borgfeld L, Drummond‑Borg M,

Eaton R, Lorey F, et al. Trends in incidence rates of congenital

hypothyroidism related to select demographic factors: Data from

the United States, California, Massachusetts, New York, and

Texas. Pediatrics 2010;125(Suppl 2):S37‑47.

Waller DK, Anderson JL, Lorey F, Cunningham GC. Risk factors

for congenital hypothyroidism: An investigation of infant’s

birth weight, ethnicity, and gender in California, 1990–1998.

Teratology 2000;62:36‑41.

Klett M. Epidemiology of congenital hypothyroidism. Exp Clin

Endocrinol Diabetes 1997;105:19‑23.

Keshavarzian E, Valipoor AA, Maracy MR. The incidence of

congenital hypothyroidism and its determinants from 2012 to

in Shadegan, Iran. Epidemiol Health 2016;38:1‑6.

Beheshti Z, Rezaei R, Alipour A, Kosarian M, Saatsaz S.

A 7‑year study on the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism

in northern Iran. Electron Physician 2018;10:6689.

Osooli M, Haghdoost A, Yarahmadi S, Foruzanfar M, Dini M,

Holakouie Naieni K. Spatial distribution of congenital

hypothyroidism in Iran using geographic information system.

Iranian J Epidemiol 2009;5:1‑8.

Razavi Z, Mohammadi L. Permanent and transient congenital

hypothyroidism in Hamadan West Province of Iran. Int J

Endocrinol Metab. 2016;14:e38256.