Family Health Behavior: Preventive Measures against Acute Respiratory Infections in Under‑5 Children

Mardiana Dwi Puspitasari, Mugia Bayu Rahardja


Background: The under‑5 mortality rate in Indonesia is 32 per 1,000 live births, still higher than the SDG target. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), as one of the leading causes of death, must be prevented. Arguments emerge concerning the association of home crowding, health behavior, and the incidence of ARI. Methods: A cross‑section analysis with the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2017 dataset is performed. Samples are restricted to 16,555 children aged 0–59 months who lived with their mother (eligible women interviewed) during the survey. For each of the variables observed during this study, missing data must be omitted as exclusion criteria. A 100 per cent answer rate was achieved. Logistic regression was used to determine ARI‑associated factors, by examining the effect of each explanatory factor (independent variables) on the odds ratio of ARI (one dependent binary variable). Results: The prevalence of ARI was more common among children living in the poorest households (AOR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.20 – 2.28) and those exposed to indoor tobacco smoke pollution (AOR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.04–1.56). On the other hand, those aged 0–5 months (AOR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43–0.82), living at home with improved sanitation (AOR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61–0.89), and exclusively breastfed (AOR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73–0.99) were less likely to have ARI. Conclusions: Home crowding is not associated with ARI. Efforts should be focused on preserving family health behavior. The family functioned as a health‑support system for their under‑5 children by establishing an indoor tobacco smoking‑free zone, practicing exclusive breastfeeding, and enhancing hygiene facilities.


Breastfeeding; crowding; family health; tobacco smoke pollution

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