Different Approaches to Confronting the Biological Epidemic; Prevention Tools with an Emphasis on COVID‑19: A Systematized Study

Marziye Hadian, Elaheh Mazaheri, Alireza Jabbari


Background: The World Health Organization has identified COVID‑19 as a public health emergency and is urging governments to stop the virus transmission by adopting appropriate policies. In this regard, authorities have taken different approaches to cutting the chain or controlling the spread of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the approaches to biological epidemics and related prevention tools with emphasis on COVID‑19 disease. Methods: The present study was a systematize study of publications related to the prevention strategies for Covid‑19 disease. The study was carried out based on the PRISMA guidelines, CASP and AACODS. The data resources included ISI/WOS, PubMed, Scopus, science direct, Ovid and ProQuest. WHO website, published reports of countries, as well as the Worldometer website were evaluated. The time‑frame of the study was from 1 December 2019 to 30 May 2020. Results: The study findings showed that in order to confronting the COVID‑19 epidemic, in general, there are three approaches of “mitigation”, “active control”, and “suppression” and four strategies of “quarantine”, “isolation”, “social distance”, and “lockdown” in both individual and social dimensions to deal with epidemics. Selection and implementation of each approach requires specific strategies and has different effects when it comes to controlling and inhibiting the disease. Conclusion: One possible approach to control the disease is to change individual behavior and lifestyle. In addition to prevention strategies, use of masks, observance of personal hygiene principles such as regular hand washing and non‑contact of contaminated hands with the face, as well as observance of public health principles such as sneezing and coughing etiquettes, safe extermination of personal protective equipment must be strictly observed. The use of the previous experiences in the world, along with the current experiences of countries, can be very helpful in choosing the accurate approach for each country in accordance with the characteristics of that country and lead to the reduction of possible costs at the national and international levels.


Coronavirus; COVID‑19; prevention and control

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