The Effect of All Extremity High Intensity Interval Training on Athero‑Protective Factors and Endothelial Function in Overweight and Obese Women

Volga Hovsepian, Sayad M Marandi, Fahimeh Esfarjani, Reihaneh Zavar, Masoumeh Sadeghi


Context: Obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as hormones are highly contributive in cardiovascular system, while they are disrupted through obesity. Weight‑bearing high intensity interval training (HIIT) as an effective procedure in preventing obesity‑related complications in adults with obesity may be limited due to the subjects’ muscular weakness and complications interfering walking. Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of non‑weight bearing all extremity HIIT (all ex. HIIT) on FGF21, adiponectin, nitric oxide (NO), and flow mediated dilation (FMD) in overweight and obese women. Methods: Thirty healthy overweight and obese sedentary university female students within 20.53 ± 1.50 age range and BMI ≥27 kg.m‑2 were assigned in two experimental and control groups. All ex. HIIT consisted of 4 × 4 min at 85–90% max HR with an interspersed with 3 × 3 min recovery per round at 70% max HR by upper and lower ergometers in a simultaneous manner on 10 weeks of four sessions of 40 min each. FGF21, adiponectin, NO, FMD, weight, waist and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured in pre and post‑tests. Paired sample t‑test and analysis of covariance are applied for statistical analysis. Results: Results indicated a significant increase in adiponectin (P ≤ 0.01) and FMD (P ≤ 0.001), while there existed no changes in FGF21 at (P ≥ 0.10) and NO (P ≥ 0.84). The weight and waist decreased at (P ≤ 0.001), and the VO2max increased at (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: All ex. HIIT may be a safe alternative for overweigh and obese women who have complications with weight‑bearing exercises, and may increase adiponectin, and improve the FMD, aerobic fitness, and body composition.


Adiponectin; atherosclerosis; fibroblast growth factor 21; high intensity interval training

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