Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) Infection‑Related Stigma, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Iranian Healthcare Workers

Ramin Hosseinzadeh, Seyed Morteza Hosseini, Mina Momeni, Amirhossein Maghari, Ali Fathi-Ashtiani, Parmid Ghadimi, Mohammad Heiat, Pooyan Barmayoon, Mahdiss Mohamadianamiri, Mansour Bahardoust, Taleb Badri, Ashraf Karbasi


Background: Psychological conditions aggravate during outbreaks. Here, we have discussed the existing COVID‑19 depression, anxiety, and stress and the resulting stigma and its different aspects in Iranian health care workers and their 1st‑degree relatives. Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, information of our study groups (237 participants including health care workers and their nuclear family members) was collected via two online stigma and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) questionnaires. Results: The DASS questionnaire’s mean depression, anxiety, and stress scores were 13.59 ± 5.76, 11.07 ± 4.38, and 15.05 ± 5.86, respectively, in our study population. Marriage status was effective on depression and stress scores. Married participants were having less depression (P = 0.008) but more stressful (P = 0.029) than single ones. Education was found to be effective on anxiety and stress scores. Those with an associate, master, Ph.D., and higher college degrees were significantly less anxious and stressed than those with a diploma or bachelor’s degrees (P = 0.032 and 0.016, respectively, for anxiety and stress). Participants with a history of psychiatric conditions showed significantly higher depression, anxiety, and stress rates than those without a past psychiatric condition (P = 0.001). Healthcare workers and their nuclear family members suffer from severe stigma (mean stigma scores were 33.57 and 33.17, respectively). Conclusions: Healthcare workers and their nuclear family members in Iran suffer from severe COVID‑19 related stigma. We also showed that depression, anxiety, and stress are common among Iranian Healthcare workers and their nuclear family members during this pandemic. This study showed that people with preexisting psychiatric conditions need extra mental care during the pandemic.


Anxiety; COVID‑19; health care workers; pandemic; stigma

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