Survey of the Salt (NaCl) Contents of Traditional Breads in Tehran, 2016‒2018: Implication for Public Health

Zahra Hadian, S. Fatemeh S. Reihani, Leila Mirmoghtadaie, Thuan Chew Tan


Background: Considering the importance of non‑communicable diseases (NCDs) in Iran, the aim of this study is to identify the trend in the salt (NaCl) levels of various types of traditional bread (sangak, barbari, taftoon, and lavash breads) in Tehran in 2016 and 2018 and its implication for public health. Methods: A total of 777 samples of various traditional breads were randomly collected from various districts located in Tehran in 2018. The salt content (expressed as g/100 g dry weight) in these breads were determined according to Volhard method. Results from this study were compared with those reported in 2016. Results: The present study indicated that the mean salt content in traditional breads in 2018 was significantly higher than that reported in 2016. Salt content in traditional breads collected in 2018 ranged from 0.03 to 6.52/100 g dry weight, with mean value of 1.43 g/100 g dry weight. When comparing with the permitted limit set by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI), there was an increase in the percentage of samples complying with the permitted limit; 50.8% (2016) vs 54.1% (2018). Conclusions: The daily salt intake increased from 1.56 g per person in 2016 to 2.31 g per person in 2018. Considering the high bread per capita consumption in Iran, it seems that half of the daily recommended salt intake could be reached exclusively through breads. Hence, the main strategies for salt intake reduction from bread could be achieved through evaluation of salt reduction programs and development of technological factors in bread baking.


Bread; Iran; non‑communicable diseases; public health; salt; sodium chloride

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