Internet of Things (IoT) Adoption Model for Early Identification and Monitoring of COVID‑19 Cases: A Systematic Review

Mostafa Shanbehzadeh, Raoof Nopour, Hadi Kazemi-Arpanahi


Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID‑19) is a mysterious and highly infectious disease that was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The virus poses a great threat to global health and the economy. Currently, in the absence of effective treatment or vaccine, leveraging advanced digital technologies is of great importance. In this respect, the Internet of Things (IoT) is useful for smart monitoring and tracing of COVID‑19. Therefore, in this study, we have reviewed the literature available on the IoT‑enabled solutions to tackle the current COVID‑19 outbreak. Methods: This systematic literature review was conducted using an electronic search of articles in the PubMed, Google Scholar, ProQuest, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases to formulate a complete view of the IoT‑enabled solutions to monitoring and tracing of COVID‑19 according to the FITT (Fit between Individual, Task, and Technology) model. Results: In the literature review, 28 articles were identified as eligible for analysis. This review provides an overview of technological adoption of IoT in COVID‑19 to identify significant users, either primary or secondary, required technologies including technical platform, exchange, processing, storage and added‑value technologies, and system tasks or applications at “on‑body,” “in‑clinic/hospital,” and even “in‑community” levels. Conclusions: The use of IoT along with advanced intelligence and computing technologies for ubiquitous monitoring and tracking of patients in quarantine has made it a critical aspect in fighting the spread of the current COVID‑19 and even future pandemics.


Coronavirus; COVID‑19; Internet of Things; systematic review

Full Text:



Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Rahman MS, Zaki R, Tan Z, Bibi S,

et al. The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19)

epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: What

lessons have we learned? Int J Epidemiol 2020;49:717-26.

Long C, Xu H, Shen Q, Zhang X, Fan B, Wang C, et al.

Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR

or CT? Eur J Radiol 2020;126:108961. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.


Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, Cao Y, Alwalid O, Gu J, et al.

Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19

pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet Infect

Dis 2020;20:425-34.

Guan W-J, Ni Z-Y, Hu Y, Liang W-H, Ou C-Q, He J-X, et al.

Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China.

N Engl Jof Med 2020;382:1708-20.

Papadopoulos T, Baltas KN, Balta ME. The use of digital

technologies by small and medium enterprises during

COVID-19: Implications for theory and practice. Int J Inf

Manage 2020:102192. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt. 2020.102192.

Bai L, Yang D, Wang X, Tong L, Zhu X, Zhong N, et al. Chinese

experts’ consensus on the internet of things-aided diagnosis and

treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical

eHealth 2020;3:7-15.

Nguyen CT, Saputra YM, Van Huynh N, Nguyen N-T, Khoa TV,

Tuan BM, et al. A comprehensive survey of enabling and

emerging technologies for social distancing—Part I: Fundamentals

and enabling technologies. IEEE Access 2020;8:153479-507.

Yang T, Gentile M, Shen CF, Cheng CM. Combining point-ofcare diagnostics and internet of medical things (IoMT) to combat

the COVID-19 pandemic. Diagnostics (Basel) 2020;10:224.

Bashshur R, Doarn CR, Frenk JM, Kvedar JC, Woolliscroft JO.

Telemedicine and the COVID-19 pandemic, lessons for the

future. Telemed J E Health 2020;26:571-3.

Barney A, Buckelew S, Mesheriakova V, Raymond-Flesch M.

The COVID-19 Pandemic and rapid implementation of

adolescent and young adult telemedicine: Challenges and

opportunities for innovation. J Adolesc Health 2020;67:164-71.

Bhardwaj K. Digital surveillance systems to combat COVID-19

may do more harm than good. Econ Polit Wkly 2020;55.

Magee LA, Khalil A, Von Dadelszen P. Covid-19: UK

Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS) study in context. BMJ

;370:m2915. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2915.

Rahman MS, Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Zaki R, Haque U, Ab Hamid SH.

Defending against the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak:

How can the internet of things (IoT) help to save the world? Health

Policy Technol 2020;9:136-8.

Ketu S, Mishra PK. Enhanced Gaussian process regression-based

forecasting model for COVID-19 outbreak and significance of

IoT for its detection. Appl Intelligence 2021;51:1492-512.

Ashton K. That ‘internet of things’ thing. RFID J


Dong Y, Yao YD. IoT platform for COVID-19 prevention and

control: A survey. Ieee Access. 2021;9:49929-41.

Kamal M, Aljohani A, Alanazi E. IoT meets COVID-19: Status,

challenges, and opportunities. arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.12268.

Allam Z, Jones DS. On the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak

and the smart city network: Universal data sharing standards

coupled with artificial intelligence (AI) to benefit urban health

monitoring and management. Healthcare (Basel) 2020;8:46.

Swayamsiddha S, Mohanty C. Application of cognitive internet

of medical things for COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes Metab

Syndr 2020;14:911-5.

Song Y, Jiang J, Wang X, Yang D, Bai C. Prospect and

application of Internet of Things technology for prevention of

SARIs. Clinical eHealth 2020;3:1-4.

Rodrigues JJ, Segundo DBDR, Junqueira HA, Sabino MH,

Prince RM, Al-Muhtadi J, et al. Enabling technologies for the

internet of health things. IEEE Access 2018;6:13129-41.

Ammenwerth E, Iller C, Mahler C. IT-adoption and the

interaction of task, technology and individuals: A fit framework

and a case study. BMC Med Inform Dec Mak 2006;6:3.

Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting

items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA

statement. Int J Surg 2010;8:336-41.

Xiao C, Zheng L, Chen F, Xiao Y. Design and research of

a smart monitoring system for 2019-nCoV infection-contact

isolated people based on blockchain and Internet of things

technology. 2020.

Wang B, Sun Y, Duong TQ, Nguyen LD, Hanzo L. Risk-aware

identification of highly suspected COVID-19 cases in social IoT: A joint graph theory and reinforcement learning approach. IEEE

Access 2020;8:115655-61.

Moro Visconti R, Morea D. Healthcare digitalization and payfor-performance incentives in smart hospital project financing.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:2318.

Vafea MT, Atalla E, Georgakas J, Shehadeh F, Mylona EK,

Kalligeros M, Mylonakis E. Emerging Technologies for use in

the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with COVID-19.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2020;13:1-9.

Siripongdee K, Pimdee P, Tuntiwongwanich S. A blended

learning model with IoT-based technology: Effectively used

when the COVID-19 pandemic? J Educ Gift Young Sci


Singh RP, Javaid M, Haleem A, Suman R. Internet of

things (IoT) applications to fight against COVID-19 pandemic.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020;14:521-4.

Singh RP, Javaid M, Haleem A, Vaishya R, Ali S. Internet of

medical things (IoMT) for orthopaedic in COVID-19 pandemic:

Roles, challenges, and applications. J Clin Orthop Trauma


Ye J. The role of health technology and informatics in a global

public health emergency: Practices and implications from the

COVID-19 pandemic. JMIR Med Inform 2020;8:e19866.

Tripathy AK, Mohapatra AG, Mohanty SP, Kougianos E,

Joshi AM, Das G. EasyBand: A wearable for safety-aware

mobility during pandemic outbreak. IEEE Consum Electron Mag


Adly AS, Adly AS, Adly MS. Approaches Based on Artificial

Intelligence and the Internet of Intelligent Things to Prevent

the Spread of COVID-19: Scoping Review. J Med Internet Res.


Bayram M, Springer S, Garvey CK, Özdemir V. COVID-19

Digital health innovation policy: A portal to alternative futures in

the making. OMICS 2020;24:460-9.

Ben Hassen H, Ayari N, Hamdi B. A home hospitalization

system based on the Internet of things, Fog computing and

cloud computing. Inform Med Unlocked 2020;20:100368. doi:

1016/j.imu. 2020.100368.

Capobussi M, Moja L. 3D printing technology and internet of

things prototyping in family practice: Building pulse oximeters

during COVID-19 pandemic. 3D Print Med 2020;6:32.

Celesti A, Ruggeri A, Fazio M, Galletta A, Villari M,

Romano A. Blockchain-based healthcare workflow for telemedical laboratory in federated hospital IoT clouds. Sensors


Chamola V, Hassija V, Gupta V, Guizani M. A comprehensive

review of the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of IoT, drones,

AI, blockchain, and 5G in managing its impact. IEEE Access


Chaudhari SN, Mene SP, Bora RM, Somavanshi KN. Role of

internet of things (IOT) in pandemic Covid-19 condition. Int J

Eng Res Appl 2020;10:57-61.

Ting DSW, Carin L, Dzau V, Wong TY. Digital technology and

COVID-19. Nat Med 2020;26:459-61.

Rehm GB, Woo SH, Chen XL, Kuhn BT, Cortes-Puch I,

Anderson NR, et al. Leveraging IoTs and machine learning for

patient diagnosis and ventilation management in the intensive

care unit. IEEE Pervasive Comput 2020;19:68-78.

Singh VK, Chandna H, Kumar A, Kumar S, Upadhyay N,

Utkarsh K. IoT-Q-Band: A low cost internet of things based

wearable band to detect and track absconding COVID-19

quarantine subjects. EAI Endorsed Trans Internet Things 2020;6.

doi: 10.4108/eai. 13-7-2018.163997.

Yu M, Bambacus M, Cervone G, Clarke K, Duffy D, Huang Q,

et al. Spatiotemporal event detection: A review. Int J Digit Earth


Mohammed M, Hazairin NA, Al-Zubaidi S, AK S, Mustapha S,

Yusuf E. Toward a novel design for coronavirus detection

and diagnosis system using iot based drone technology. Int J

Psychosoc Rehabilitation 2020;24:2287-95.

Praveena G, Sruthi D. Novel covid-19 detection and diagnosis

system using IOT based smart helmet. JAC J Compos Theory


Oyeniyi J, Ogundoyin I, Oyeniran O, Omotosho L. Application

of internet of things (IoT) to enhance the fight against COVID-19

pandemic. Int J Multi Sci Adv Technol 2020;1:38-42.

James P, Das R, Jalosinska A, Smith L. Smart cities and a

data-driven response to COVID-19. Dialogues Hum Geogr

:2043820620934211. doi: 10.1177/2043820620934211.

Xing Y, Mo P, Xiao Y, Zhao O, Zhang Y, Wang F. Post-discharge

surveillance and positive virus detection in two medical staff

recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), China,

January to February 2020. Euro Surveill 2020;25:2000191. doi:


Ndiaye M, Oyewobi SS, Abu-Mahfouz AM, Hancke GP,

Kurien AM, Djouani K. IoT in the wake of COVID-19: A survey

on contributions, challenges and evolution. IEEE Access


Yang H, Kan C, Krall A, Finke D. Network modeling and

Internet of things for smart and connected health systems—a

case study for smart heart health monitoring and management.

IISE Trans Healthc Syst Eng 2020;10:159-7.

Kang M, Park E, Cho BH, Lee K-S. Recent patient health

monitoring platforms incorporating internet of things-enabled

smart devices. Int Neurourol J 2018;22(Suppl 2):S76.

Sun G, Trung NV, Hiep PT, Ishibashi K, Matsui T. Visualisation

of epidemiological map using an Internet of things infectious

disease surveillance platform. Crit Care 2020;24:400.

Joyia GJ, Liaqat RM, Farooq A, Rehman S. Internet of medical

things (IOMT): Applications, benefits and future challenges in

healthcare domain. J Commun 2017;12:240-7.

Javaid M, Haleem A, Vaishya R, Bahl S, Suman R, Vaish A.

Industry 4.0 technologies and their applications in fighting

COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020;14:419-22.

Kumar K, Kumar N, Shah R. Role of IoT to avoid spreading of

COVID-19. Int J Intell Netw 2020;1:32-5.