Design and Validation of Novel Evaporative Local Cooling Coatings to Prevent Adverse Health Effects of Heat Exposure

Mahsa Jahadi, Habibollah Dehghan


Background: This study aimed to design and evaluate the cooling power of local cooling coats for the head, neck, ankles, and wrists. Methods: Local cooling coatings were designed using Iranians workers’ existing 50th anthropometric percentile data. After immersing the cooling coats in water for 5 minutes, they were placed in a chamber at 30°C, 35°C, and 40°C and 30% and 60% humidity and 0.2‑0.4 m/s air velocity for 120 minutes. The amount of water evaporation was measured by weighing each coat before and after entering the chamber, and then the cooling power of each coat was calculated based on the amount of water evaporation. Results: The average cooling power of cooling coats with covering areas (two wrists 933.75 cm2 , two ankles 1467.37 cm2 and head and neck 1270 cm2 ) that the total area of the cover is 3671.12 cm2 , i.e., about 20% of the body at 30% relative humidity in 30°C, 35°C and 40°C was 67, 77 and 89 watts, respectively. At the mentioned temperature and in 60% relative humidity, the cooling power was 34, 40, and 55 watts. As the relative humidity increased, the cooling power of the coats decreased. Conclusions: Local evaporative cooling coat on the head, neck, wrists, and ankles can reasonably repel excess heat entering the body. The best performance of these coats is in hot and dry environments. Probably, if used in conjunction with cooling vests in environments with high temperatures and heavy activity, it can act as a supplement to cooling vests and have a significant effect on improving functions.


Heat illness; heat stress; personal protective equipment; prevention and control

Full Text:



Rad SY, Dehghan HA, Zeinodini M, Rahimi Y. The relationship

between the heat strain score index and heart rate in overweight

individuals under warm laboratory conditions. J Health Syst Res


Tawatsupa B, Lim LL, Kjellstrom T, Seubsman S‑A, Sleigh A,

Team TCS. Association between occupational heat stress and

kidney disease among 37 816 workers in the Thai Cohort

Study (TCS). J Epidemiol 2012;22:251‑60.

Gaoua N, Grantham J, Racinais S, El Massioui F. Sensory

displeasure reduces complex cognitive performance in the heat.

J Environ Psychol 2012;32:158‑63.

Koohpaei A. Semi‑quantitative risk assessment of occupational

exposure area industrial wastewater treatment unit in an

oil refinery and chemical contaminants. Iran Occup Health


Umar T, Egbu C, editors. Heat stress, a hidden cause of

accidents in construction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil

Engineers–Municipal Engineer, Thomas Telford Ltd., 2020.

Yazdanirad S, Dehghan H. Designing of the cooling vest from

paraffin compounds and evaluation of its impact under laboratory

hot conditions. Int J Prev Med 2016;7:47.

Mousavi SM, Abbasi M, Yazdanirad S, Yazdanirad M,

Khatooni E. Fuzzy AHP‑TOPSIS method as a technique

for prioritizing noise control solutions. Noise Control Eng J


Yazdani Rad S, Dehghan H. The design and manufacturing of

phase change material cooling vests and their effectiveness in

reducing thermal strain under laboratory conditions. Iran J Ergon


Panchabikesan K, Vellaisamy K, Ramalingam V. Passive cooling

potential in buildings under various climatic conditions in India.

Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2017;78:1236‑52.

Gharebaei S, Dehghan H, Mahaki B, Valipour F. Effect of

Iranian cooling vests with phase change material packs on heat

strain indices in hot/humid conditions in Persian Gulf. Iran J

Ergon 2014;2:57‑66.

Ciuha U, Valenčič T, Mekjavic IB. Cooling efficiency of vests

with different cooling concepts over 8‑hour trials. Ergonomics


Mokhtari Yazdi M, Sheikhzadeh M. Personal cooling garments:

A review. J Text Inst 2014;105:1231‑50.

Hyde JL. The influence of head cooling combined with

various cooling modalities on cooling rate after exercise in the

heat. Master’s Theses 2015. p. 773. Availablle from: https://

Krishnan A, Singh K, Sharma D, Upadhyay V, Singh A. Effect of wrist cooling on aerobic and anaerobic performance in elite

sportsmen. Med J Armed Forces India 2018;74:38‑43.

Desai T, Bottoms L. Neck cooling improves table tennis

performance amongst young national level players. Sports

;5:19. doi: 10.3390/sports5010019.

Shvartz E. Effect of neck versus chest cooling on responses to

work in heat. J Appl Physiol 1976;40:668‑72.

Ando S, Komiyama T, Sudo M, Kiyonaga A, Tanaka H, Higaki Y.

The effects of temporal neck cooling on cognitive function

during strenuous exercise in a hot environment: A pilot study.

BMC Rese Notes 2015;8:1‑8. doi: 10.1186/s13104‑015‑1210‑0.

Bright FM, Chaseling GK, Jay O, Morris NB. Self‑paced exercise

performance in the heat with neck cooling, menthol application,

and abdominal cooling. J Sci Med Sport 2019;22:371‑7.

Filingeri D, Fournet D, Hodder S, Havenith G. Mild evaporative

cooling applied to the torso provides thermoregulatory

benefits during running in the heat. Scand J Med Sci Sports


Motamedzade M, Choobineh A, Mououdi MA, Arghami S.

Ergonomic design of carpet weaving hand tools. Int J Ind Ergon


Taghizade M, Mohebbi I, Khalkhali H, Ahmadi‑Arablu P,

Torfeh A, Hajaghazadeh M. The study of anthropometric

dimensions of hand in office staffs in Urmia. Iran J Ergon


Emamgholizadeh Minaei R, Hajaghazadeh M, Allahyari T,

Khalkhali H, Keramat M. Anthropometric dimensions of foot in

students. Iran J Ergon 2016;4:28‑38.

Bizheh N, Abdollahi A, Jaafari M, Ajam Zibad Z. Relationship

between neck circumferences with cardiovascular risk factors.

J Babol Univ Med Sci 2011;13:36‑43.

Mououdi MA, Golitalari H, Nonorimoghaddam S,

Ghorbanirameneti N, Ghaempanah F, Mahdavih M.

Anthropometric engineering approach in conceptual design of

sleeping pillow. Occup Med 2019;10:74‑82.

Sawka MN, Leon LR, Montain SJ, Sonna LA. Integrated

physiological mechanisms of exercise performance,

adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress. Compr Physiol


Shaid A, Wang L, Padhye R. The thermal protection and comfort

properties of aerogel and PCM‑coated fabric for firefighter

garment. J Ind Text 2016;45:611‑25.

Havenith G, Bröde P, den Hartog E, Kuklane K, Holmer I,

Rossi RM, et al. Evaporative cooling: Effective latent heat of

evaporation in relation to evaporation distance from the skin.

J Appl Physiol 2013;114:778‑85.

Cahyawijaya S, Suwardi IS. Automatic human joint detection

using Microsoft Kinect. Proc Electr Eng Comput Sci Inform


Yi W, Zhao Y, Chan AP. Evaluating the effectiveness of cooling

vest in a hot and humid environment. Ann Work Expo Health