Design and Evaluating Psychometric Properties of the Eye Care Behaviors Assessment Instrument

Rahmat Chatripour, Awat Feizi, Fereshteh Zamani‑Alavijeh, Afsaneh Naderi Beni, Maryam Amidi Mazaheri


Background: Eye health is essential for quality‑of‑life. The present study aimed to design an eye care behaviors assessment instrument for the student community and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods: The present mixed‑method cross‑sectional study was conducted in two sections using Creswell and Plano Clark methods for instrument development. The study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, in 2021. The first section (textual analysis and qualitative research) explained and developed the instrument’s fundamental items. This section included in‑depth, semistructured interviews with 21 students and eight experts. The second section measured the psychometric properties of the instrument. Twenty students assessed the instrument’s qualitative and quantitative face validity in this section. The instrument’s content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) were evaluated. In addition, exploratory factor analysis (performed by 251 students) was used to establish construct validity. Internal and test–retest reliability was determined using Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), respectively. Results: During face and content validity assessment, a 37‑item questionnaire was finalized. Exploratory factor analysis led to the identification of three factors, including “examinations and glasses‑related behaviors,” “symptom‑related behaviors,” and “screen‑related behaviors.” The three extracted factors accounted for 37.9% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha was equal to 0.874 when evaluating internal consistency, and the ICC value for the total score of the questionnaire was 0.885 (0.810–0.941), indicating excellent test–retest reliability. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the questionnaire’s validity and reliability. This instrument assesses the prevalence of university students’ most significant eye health risk behaviors. Consequently, it helps prevent eye problems.


Eyes; psychometric; self‑care; students

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