Post‑COVID‑19 Syndrome Mechanisms, Prevention and Management

Majed B. Najaf, Shaghayegh H. Javanmard


As the population of patients recovering from COVID‑19 grows, post COVID‑19 challenges are recognizing by ongoing evidences at once. Long COVID is defined as a syndrome with a range of persistent symptoms that remain long after (beyond 12 weeks) the acute SARS‑CoV‑2 infection. Studies have shown that long COVID can cause multi‑organ damages with a wide spectrum of manifestations. Many systems, but not limited to, including respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal systems, are involved in long COVID. Fatigue and dyspnea are the most common symptoms of long COVID. Long COVID‑19 may be driven by tissue damage caused by virus‑specific pathophysiologic changes or secondary to pathological long‑lasting inflammatory response because of viral persistence, immune dysregulation, and autoimmune reactions. Some risk factors like sex and age, more than five early symptoms, and specific biomarkers have been revealed as a probable long COVID predicator discussed in this review. It seems that vaccination is the only way for prevention of long COVID and it can also help patients who had already long COVID. Managing long COVID survivors recommended being in a multidisciplinary approach, and a framework for identifying those at high risk for post‑acute COVID‑19 must be proposed. Possible therapeutic options and useful investigation tools for follow‑up are suggested in this review. In sum, as evidence and researches are regularly updated, we provide the current understanding of the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, suspected pathophysiology, associated risk factors, and treatment options of long COVID in this review.


Chronic COVID syndrome; long COVID; long haul COVID; long hauler COVID; post‑acute COVID syndrome; post‑acute COVID‑19 syndrome

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