Combined Ursolic Acid and Resistance/Endurance Training Improve Type 3 Diabetes Biomarkers‑Related Memory Deficits in Hippocampus of Aged Male Wistar Rats

Neda Ghadiri, Fahimeh Esfarjani, Sayed Mohammad Marandi, Ebrahim Banitalebi, Elham Saghaee


Background: Both aging and diabetes are two well‑established risk factors related to type 3 diabetes and memory deficits. Accordingly, diabetes multiplies the effects of aging on cognition impairments once these conditions occur simultaneously. Methods: In this present experimental study, 56 male Wistar rats with HFD/STZ‑induced T2D were randomized into seven groups (n = eight animals per group): (1) sedentary old non‑diabetic (C); (2) sedentary HFD/STZ‑induced T2D (D); (3) sedentary HFD/STZ‑induced T2D plus UA (UA) (DU); (4) endurance‑trained HFD/STZ‑induced T2D (DE); (5) resistance‑trained HFD/STZ‑induced T2D (DR); (6) endurance‑trained HFD/STZ‑induced T2D plus UA (DEU); and (7) resistance‑trained STZ‑diabetic plus UA (DRU) rats. Two‑way ANOVA was applied to measure the training, supplementation, and interaction effect on serum and gene expression outcomes. Result: The study results established no significant interaction effect between the UA supplementation and the resistance/endurance training with regard to the levels of glucose (P = 0.534), insulin (P = 0.327), brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (P = 0.191), and insulin‑like growth factor‑1 (P = 0.448). Conclusions: To develop novel practical nutritional strategies involving UA intake, further studies are thus needed to clarify how chronic consumption of UA with/without resistance/endurance training reverses cognition disorder process in old male Wistar rats with HFD/STZ‑induced T2D.


Aging; cognition disorders; diabetes mellitus type 2; endurance training; resistance training

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