Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Four Age Groups of Female Individuals: The PEP Family Heart Study

Peter Schwandt, Gerda-Maria Haas, Thomas Bertsch Bertsch


Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with
cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women participating
in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.
Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood
pressures (SBP, DBP), lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were
measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women <55 years
and 150 women ≥ 55 years. Nutritional data were assessed by 7
days weighted dietary records. For statistics, SPSS 15.0 was used;
associations were calculated by multiple logistic regression;
p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The prevalence of CVD risk factors was similar in children
and adolescents except for hypertriglyceridemia which was
>3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of
junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m²) and 21% had
central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more
adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy
consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and
the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein
was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was
lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat
respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The association between
energy consumption and overweight was significant and
calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular
risk factors (OR: 4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33).
Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously
from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women.
However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric
intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk
factors in adult women.
Keywords: Women; Age groups; Cardiovascular risk factors; Nutrition.

Full Text: