The Incidence of Pressure Ulcers and its Associations in Different Wards of the Hospital: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Lotfolah Afzali Borojeny, Ahmed N. Albatineh, Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh


Pressure ulcer is a health problem worldwide that is common among inpatients and elderly people with physical‑motor limitations. To deliver nursing care and prevent the development of pressure ulcers, it is essential to identify the factors that affect it. This global systematic review and meta‑analysis was conducted with the aim of evaluating the incidence of pressure ulcers in observational studies. In this study, databases including Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched to collect data. Articles published from 1997 to 2017 about the factors influencing the incidence of pressure ulcers were retrieved and their results were analyzed using meta‑analysis according to the Random‑Effects Model. The heterogeneity of studies was investigated using the I2 statistic. Data were analyzed using the R and Stata software (version 14). In this study, 35 studies were included in the final analysis. The results showed that the pooled estimate of the incidence rate of pressure ulcer was 12% (95% CI: 10–14). The incidence rates of the pressure ulcers of the first, second, third, and fourth stages were 45% (95% CI: 34–56), 45% (95% CI: 34–56), 4% (95% CI: 3–5), and 4% (95% CI: 2–6), respectively. The highest incidence of pressure ulcers was observed among inpatients in orthopedic surgery ward (18.5%) (95% CI: 11.5–25). According to the final results, better conditions should be provided to decrease the incidence of pressure ulcers in different wards, especially orthopedics, and in patients with diabetes.


Incidence; meta‑analysis; pressure ulcer

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