Significance of serum protein electrophoresis in the detection of multiple myeloma: A diagnostic interpretation of patients with varied immunoglobulins

BS Nayak, Nikkisha Ojar-Taylor, Samara St John, Shanygne Swann, Jayselle Thom, Brandon Thomas, Lisa Thomas, Daniella Townsend, Shaquille Trotman


Background: To determine the relationship between serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and serum immunoglobulin profiles of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, focusing on patients over 18 years who received diagnostic blood tests for MM. Results for SPE and serum immunoglobulin profiles were obtained using lab logbooks. Descriptive and inferential statistics techniques were used to analyze the data. Results: The median age of MM patients in Trinidad and Tobago is of 69 years. The ratio of male and female patients with the MM is 50:50. Out of 131 patients, 24 (18.32%) had M bands present, 60 (45.80%) had an increase in gamma globulin, and 16 (12.21%) had a decrease in albumin. In cases of M band presence and raised gamma, there was noticeable increase in IgG concentration and a slight increase in IgM concentration. There was also an increase in IgA concentration in patients with the M-band but a decrease in concentration in those with raised gamma. Patients with an elevated gamma had a significant increase in IgG diameter and IgG concentration. Conclusions: This study showed a relationship between the presence of M bands and serum immunoglobulins. It has proven the significance of SPE and immunoglobulins, like IgG and IGM, in the detection of MM in the early and advanced stages. Therefore, it is recommended that SPE be used, along with other laboratory tests, in the diagnosis of MM.


Immunoglobulins; multiple myeloma; serum protein electrophoresis

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