Risk Assessment of Nano‑Flame Retardants Coating in the Selected Construction Industry of Iran by Control Banding Approach

Zahra Mohammadi, Masoume Vahabi, Seyed Mohammad Sadat, Rezvan Zendehdel


Background: There is a wide range of challenges through the use of nano‑material in buildings. By developing construction industries the use of flame retardant nano‑materials is a hurdle for human health. However occupational exposure measurement is not applicable for nano‑particles monitoring. Risk assessment is an alternative method for industrial hygiene strategies. In this study, we use the control banding approach for risk assessment of 3 nano‑fire retardant (NFR) in the building industry. Methods: We used control banding as a risk assessment approach for decision making about nano‑materials in the building industry. The risk of nano‑fire retardants such as monokote accelerator, monokote Z‑106 G and monokote Z‑106 HY in the construction industry was studied. The level of risk was evaluated by the matrix of hazard severity and probability score. Hazard severity was scored by toxicological information. The probability score was estimated by the state work operation. Results: A score of hazard severity in monokot Z‑106 HY was higher than other nano‑materials. The probability score of spraying tasks was lower than mixing and transportation tasks. The results show the application of all nano‑materials had the higher risk level in transportation and mixing tasks. The risk level of monokote accelerator and monokote Z‑106 G in spraying task is lower than monokot Z‑106 HY. Conclusions: There is a high risk level for studied nano‑materials in the coating tasks of the construction industry. In conclusion, powerful controlling strategies such as the substitution of nano‑materials was suggested to decrease the risk of nano‑fire retardants.


Construction industry; control banding; flame retardant; nano‑material

Full Text:



Liguori B, Hansen SF, Baun A, Jensen KA. Control banding

tools for occupational exposure assessment of nanomaterials—

Ready for use in a regulatory context? NanoImpact 2016;2:1‑17.

Groso A, Meyer T, editors. Concerns related to safety

management of engineered nanomaterials in research

environment. J Phys Conf Ser 2013;429:012065.

Geraci CL, Lentz T, Niemeier R. Qualitative risk characterization

and management of occupational hazards: Control banding (CB);

A literature review and critical analysis. National Institute for

Occupational Safety and Health 2009.

Paik SY, Zalk DM, Swuste P. Application of a pilot control

banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle

exposures. Ann Occup Hyg 2008;52:419‑28.

Silva F, Sousa S, Arezes P, Swuste P, Ribeiro M, Baptista JS,

editors. Qualitative risk assessment during polymer mortar test

specimens preparation‑methods comparison. J Phys Conf Ser


Zalk DM, Heussen GH. Banding the world together; the global

growth of control banding and qualitative occupational risk

management. Safety and Health at Work 2011;2:375-9.

Eastlake A, Zumwalde R, Geraci C. Can control banding be

useful for the safe handling of nanomaterials? A systematic

review. J Nanopart Res 2016;18:169.

Zalk D, Paik S, Swuste P. Control banding nanotool: Evaluation

of a qualitative risk assessment method for the control of

nanoparticulate exposures. Lawrence Livermore National Lab.

(LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States) 2009;11:1685-704.

Beaudrie CE, Kandlikar M. Horses for courses: Risk information

and decision making in the regulation of nanomaterials.

J Nanopart Res 2011;13:1477‑88.

Murashov V, Howard J. Essential features for proactive risk

management. Nat Nanotechnol 2009;4:467‑70.

Schulte PA, Geraci CL, Hodson L, Zumwalde R, Castranova V,

Kuempel E, et al. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials in the

occupational setting. J Occup Environ Hyg 2010;1:63-8.

Money CD. European experiences in the development of

approaches for the successful control of workplace health risks.

Ann Occup Hyg 2003;47:533‑40.

Zalk DM, Nelson DI. History and evolution of control banding:

A review. J Occup Environ Hyg 2008;5:330‑46.

Albuquerque PC, Gomes J, Pereira C, Miranda RM. Assessment

and control of nanoparticles exposure in welding operations by

use of a Control Banding Tool. J Clean Prod 2015;89:296‑300.

Aschberger K, Campia I, Pesudo LQ, Radovnikovic A, Reina V.

Chemical alternatives assessment of different flame retardants–A

case study including multi‑walled carbon nanotubes as synergist.

Environ Int 2017;101:27‑45.

Powers CM, Grieger KD, Hendren CO, Meacham CA,

Gurevich G, Lassiter MG, et al. A web‑based tool to engage

stakeholders in informing research planning for future decisions

on emerging materials. Sci Total Environ 2014;470:660‑8.

Romero‑Franco M, Godwin HA, Bilal M, Cohen Y. Needs

and challenges for assessing the environmental impacts of

engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Beilstein J Nanotechnol


Hanus MJ, Harris AT. Nanotechnology innovations for the

construction industry. Prog Mater Sci 2013;58:1056‑102.

Van Broekhuizen P, van Broekhuizen F, Cornelissen R,

Reijnders L. Use of nanomaterials in the European construction

industry and some occupational health aspects thereof.

J Nanopart Res 2011;13:447‑62.

De Wit CA. An overview of brominated flame retardants in the

environment. Chemosphere 2002;46:583‑624.

Esmaeili‑Bafghi‑Karimabad A, Ghanbari D, Salavati‑Niasari M,

Safardoust‑Hojaghan H. Microwave‑assisted synthesis of SiO2

nanoparticles and its application on the flame retardancy of

poly styrene and poly carbonate nanocomposites. J Nanostruct


Lee J, Mahendra S, Alvarez PJ. Nanomaterials in the construction

industry: A review of their applications and environmental health

and safety considerations. ACS Nano 2010;4:3580‑90.

Liou S‑H, Tsou T‑C, Wang S‑L, Li L‑A, Chiang H‑C, Li

W‑F, et al. Epidemiological study of health hazards among

workers handling engineered nanomaterials. J Nanopart Res


Lee J, Mahendra S, Alvarez P. Potential environmental and

human health impacts of nanomaterials used in the construction

industry. In: Bittnar Z, Bartos PJ, Němeček J, Šmilauer V,

Zeman J. Nanotechnology in Construction 3. USA. Springer;

p. 1-14.

Van Broekhuizen F, Van Broekhuizen P. Nano-products in

the European construction industry. European Federation of

Building and Wood Workers and European Construction Industry

Federation. Amsterdam; 2009.

De Ipiña JL, Vaquero C, Boutry D, Damlencourt J, Neofytou P,

Pilou M, et al., editors. Strategies, methods and tools

for managing nanorisks in construction. J Phys Conf Ser


Safety Data Sheet, Calcium sulfate [Internet]. Fisher Science

Education. Global Safety Management, Inc 2014. Available

from: https://beta-static.fishersci.com/content/dam/fishersci/


chemicals/chemicals-c/S25230.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 21].

Control banding datasheet. Lawrence Livermore National

Laboratory. Available from: https://controlbanding.llnl.gov/

download. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 21].

Jeevanandam J, Barhoum A, Chan YS, Dufresne A,

Danquah MK. Review on nanoparticles and nanostructured

materials: History, sources, toxicity and regulations. Beilstein J

Nanotechnol 2018;9:1050‑74.

Zalk DM, Spee T, Gillen M, Lentz TJ, Garrod A, Evans P, et al.

Review of qualitative approaches for the construction industry:

Designing a risk management toolbox. Saf Health Work


Costa M, Klein CB. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium

compounds in humans. Crit Rev Toxicol 2006;36:155‑63.

Jones DG, Wilbur SB, Roney N, Faroon O, Williams M,

Williams R, et al. Toxicological profle for silica: Draft for

public comment. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease

Registry Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences

Environmental Toxicology Branch 2017.

Zhitkovich A. Importance of chromium − DNA adducts in

mutagenicity and toxicity of chromium (VI). Chem Res Toxicol


Li H, Chen Q, Li S, Yao W, Li L, Shi X, et al. Effect of Cr (VI)

exposure on sperm quality: Human and animal studies. Ann

Occup Hyg 2001;45:505‑11.

Jonkers N, Krop H, van Ewijk H, Leonards PE. Life cycle

assessment of flame retardants in an electronics application. Int J

Life Cycle Assess 2016;21:146‑61.

Huang T. Quantitative Analysis and Health Risk Assessment

of Novel Brominated Flame Retardants in House Dust.

[dissertation]. University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science

and Forestry. Department of Environmental and Biological

Sciences 2017.

Control Banding Guideline. Employment and Social

Development Canada 2018. Available from: https://www.canada.


reports/control-banding.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 21].