Antifungal Effects of Iranian Propolis Extract and Royal jelly Against Candida albicans In‑Vitro

Hassan Moghim, Simin Taghipour, Soleiman Kheiri, Hamideh Khabbazi, Azar Baradaran


Background: Candida albicans is the most important opportunistic fungal that can establish infection in susceptible individuals. Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly are bee products that are traditionally used against fungal infections. This study was aimed to evaluate the antifungal effects of Iranian Propolis extract and Royal jelly against C. albicans in vitro. Methods: Antifungal activities of the extracts were performed according to microbroth dilution method in 96‑well microdilution plates. The amount of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) based on counting the number of fungal colonies (CFU) were evaluated for each of Royal jelly and Iranian Propolis extracts against C. albicans compared with the control group. Results: In this study, the MIC, MIC50, and MFC of Royal jelly on C. albicans were, respectively, 80, 103 ± 25, and 160 ± 34 mg/mL and for the Iranian Propolis alcoholic extract were, respectively, 0.030 ± 0.015, 0.0618 ± 0.027, and 0.0833 ± 0.0599 mg/mL. Conclusions: The results indicate that both Royal jelly and Iranian Propolis alcoholic extract are effective against C. albicans, but the former species has higher antifungal activity. If the clinical trials confirm the results of this study, Iranian propolis, as a new antifungal agent by replacing chemical drugs, can be used to develop antifungal medicinal herbs.


Candida albicans; Iranian propolis; Royal jelly

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