Short‑Term Impact of Two Kinds of Vegetables to Exogenous Total Nitrate and Nitrite Intake: Is Antibacterial Mouthwash Influential?

Malihe Moazeni, Sahar Gholipour, Behzad Mahaki, Afshin Ebrahimi


Background: Nitrate is a compound with adverse effects on human health that can exist also in vegetables. This study aimed to determine the intake of total nitrate/nitrite from lettuce and carrot as high and low nitrate content, respectively. Moreover, the effect of chlorhexidine mouthwash on the elimination of the nitrite level in saliva and urine was surveyed. Methods: This study was designed as a crossover based on the randomized selection method. Thirty‑nine participants were divided into two groups; the lettuce and carrot juice consumers (control group). The case group was consumed these two vegetables, while they used antibacterial mouthwash. The background of nitrate/nitrite of the participants was determined before exposure. The intake of total nitrate and nitrite via lettuce and carrot juice consumption was investigated. The Griess colorimetric reaction was used for nitrate and nitrite determination in samples. Results: Total nitrate concentrations in case and control groups were detected 0.79 and 0.78 mM in saliva and 1.78 and 1.38 mM in urine after lettuce consumption, respectively. However, it was determined 1.55 and 2.43 mM in saliva and 2.92 and 3.04 mM in urine after carrot ingestion. Salivary nitrite concentration 0.53 mM was decreased to 0.45 mM after antibacterial mouthwash application (P‑value <0.05). Conclusions: This study indicated that the intake of total nitrate/nitrite via leafy vegetables was higher than rooty ones. The chlorhexidine mouthwash is an appropriate recommendation to reduce the nitrite concentration in the human body for preventing the probable side effects of nitrate metabolites such as N‑nitrosamines forming.


Antibacterial agents; mouthwashes; nitrates; nitrites; vegetables

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