Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water and Hygienic Assessment of Water Cooler Dispensers in Higher Education Institution

Nopadol Precha, Chayada Rattanaphan, Tanyaporn Galiga, Presert Makkaew, Nutcha Narom, Siriuma Jawjit


Background: The bacteriological quality of drinking water has become a public health concern according to its association with water‑borne diseases. Nowadays, there are several different types of drinking water, including water cooler dispensers (WCDs), which are becoming a popular device in educational institutions. Therefore, this study aims to determine the bacteriological quality of drinking water from WCDs, and inspect their hygienic conditions in students’ dormitories at a university in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. Methods: Water samples from 53 WCDs installed in 13 dormitories were collected and analyzed coliform bacteria by using the multiple‑tube fermentation technique. The hygienic inspection form from the Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, was used for inspection of the sanitary conditions. The hygienic factors of water cooler sanitation were analyzed using the generalized linear model. Results: Coliform bacteria were found in 10 out of 53 samples; moreover, Escherichia coli was recovered in three samples. Maintenance/cleaning and monitoring were the most two sanitary issues found in 100% (53/53) of the WCDs. Location and features of machine were found the correlation with the prevalence of coliform bacteria in drinking water. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest regular monitoring of water quality in educational institutions. Also, the Sanitary Standard and Operational Procedures (S.S.O.P.) should be developed to improve the hygienic conditions of the water cooler dispensers.


Drinking water; environmental monitoring; hygiene; water quality

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