Waterpipe Smoking in Pregnant Women of Zahedan City in 2020: Prevalence and Associated Factors

Samira Khayat, Maryam Navaee, Hamed Fanaei, Farnoosh Khojasteh

Abstract


Background: Waterpipe smoking is associated with maternal and fetal complications, and valid data contribute to evidence‑based planning. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and factors related with waterpipe smoking among pregnant women of Zahedan city in 2020.

Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in 2020, and 400 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy who lived in Zahedan participated in it by single stage randomized cluster sampling. A questionnaire was used to measure awareness of waterpipe complications, and another one investigated the status of waterpipe smoking to collect data. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used through SPSS 21.

Results: The findings indicated that the prevalence of waterpipe smoking was 18.8%. In the waterpipe smoking group, 46.6% smoked every day, 89.3% had tried to reduce the smoking, and 64.8% reported fetal death as their main motivation to reduce smoking. Only 5.6% of subjects stated receiving training as the reason for reduction of their waterpipe smoking. The women’s level of education, economic status, ethnicity, and awareness of the risks of waterpipe smoking were the predictors for waterpipe smoking (P < 0.05, P = 0.03, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: The results of this study show the high prevalence of waterpipe smoking in pregnant women of Zahedan. Further investigation and training in this regard are essential for pregnancy as well as pre‑pregnancy care. Special attention should be paid to groups with better economic status and level of education, Baluch women, and those with low level of awareness.


Keywords


Iran; pregnancy; prevalence; tobacco; waterpipe smoking

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arshad A, Matharoo J, Arshad E, Sadhra SS, Norton‑Wangford R,

Jawad M. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions towards

waterpipe tobacco smoking amongst college or university

students: A systematic review. BMC Public Health 2019;19:439.

England LJ, Kim SY, Tomar SL, Ray CS, Gupta PC,

Eissenberg T, et al. Non-cigarette tobacco use among women

and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand

;89:454‑64.

Baheiraei A, Mirghafourvand M, Nedjat S, Mohammadi E,

Mohammad‑Alizadeh Charandabi S. Prevalence of water pipe

use and its correlates in Iranian women of reproductive age

in Tehran: A population‑based study. Medical principles and

practice. Kuwait J Sci2012;21:340‑4.

Nakhostin‑Roohi B, Valizadeh S. The comparison of hookah

smoking prevalence in medical students between 2009 and 2014.

Epidemiol Biostat Public Health 2016;13:e11714-1-e11714-5.

Kalan ME, Taleb ZB. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A reality

or hidden iceberg for Iranian women. Health Promot Perspect

;8:252‑4.

Danaei M, Jabbarinejad‑Kermani A, Mohebbi E, Momeni M.

Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence and associated factors in

the southeast of Iran. Addict Health 2017;9:72‑80.

Masoumeh P, Vahid K, Hamid A, Khosheh K, Samira K.

Knowledge of pregnant women about congenital anomalies:

A cross‑sectional study in north of Iran. Indian J Health Sci

Biomed Res 2015;8:41‑7.

Azab M, Khabour OF, Alzoubi KH, Anabtawi MM, Quttina M,

Khader Y, et al. Exposure of pregnant women to waterpipe and

cigarette smoke. Nicotine Tob Res 2013;15:231‑7.

Ardawi M, Nasrat H, Rouzi A, Qari M, Al-Qahtani M,

Abuzenadah A. The effect of cigarette or sheesha smoking

on first-trimester markers of Down syndrome. BJOG

;114:1397‑401.

Mosharraf S, Allahdadin M, Reyhani M. Comparison of adverse

pregnancy outcomes between hookah and non‑smoking women.

J Midwifery Reprod Health 2019;7:1499‑505.

Wehby GL, Prater K, McCarthy AM, Castilla EE, Murray JC.

The impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on early child

neurodevelopment. J Hum Cap 2011;5:207‑54.

Nematollahi S, Mansournia MA, Foroushani AR, Mahmoodi M,

Alavi A, Shekari M, et al. The effects of water‑pipe smoking

on birth weight: A population‑based prospective cohort study in

southern Iran. Epidemiol Health 2018;40:e2018008.

Mirahmadizadeh A, Nakhaee N. Prevalence of waterpipe

smoking among rural pregnant women in Southern Iran. Med

Princ Pract 2008;17:435‑9.

Chaaya M, Jabbour S, El‑Roueiheb Z, Chemaitelly H.

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of argileh (water pipe or

hubble‑bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in

Lebanon. AddictBehav 2004;29:1821‑31.

Kurti AN, Redner R, Lopez AA, Keith DR, Villanti AC,

Stanton CA, et al. Tobacco and nicotine delivery product use in

a national sample of pregnant women. Prev Med 2017;104:50‑6.

Nemati S, Rafei A, Freedman ND, Fotouhi A, Asgary F,

Zendehdel K. Cigarette and water‑pipe use in Iran: Geographical

distribution and time trends among the adult population; a pooled

analysis of national STEPS surveys, 2006–2009. Arch Iran Med

;20:295‑301.

Nematollahi S, Holakouie‑Naieni K, Madani A, Shabkhiz H,

Torabi E, Lotfi S. The effect of quitting water pipe during

pregnancy on anthropometric measurements at birth:

A population‑based prospective cohort study in the south of Iran.

J Midwifery Reprod Health2020;20:1‑7.

Khayat S, Dolatian M, Fanaei H, Navidian A, Mahmoodi Z,

Kasaeian A. Women’s reproductive health status in urban slums

in Southeast Iran in 2017: A cross‑sectional study. J Midwifery

Reprod Health 2020;8:2069‑82.

Ansari H, AnsariMoghaddam A, Mohammadi M. Prevalence

of substance abuse and associated factors in hookah users. J

Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2016;26:73‑84.

Cornacchione J, Wagoner KG, Wiseman KD, Kelley D,

Noar SM, Smith MH, et al. Adolescent and young adult

perceptions of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos: Implications for

risk messages. J Health Commun 2016;21:818‑25.

Khayat S, Dolatian M, Navidian A, Mahmoodi Z, Kasaeian A,

Fanaei H. Factors affecting adequacy of prenatal care in suburban

women of Southeast Iran: A cross‑sectional study. JClinDiagn

Res 2018;12:QC01‑5.

Lopez AA, Redner R, Kurti AN, Keith DR, Villanti AC,

Stanton CA, et al. Tobacco and nicotine delivery product use in

a US national sample of women of reproductive age. Prev Med

;117:61‑8.

Kurti AN, Redner R, Bunn JY, Tang K, Nighbor T, Lopez AA,

et al. Examining the relationship between pregnancy and quitting

use of tobacco products in a US national sample of women of

reproductive age. Prev Med 2018;117:52‑60.

Edvardsson K, Ivarsson A, Eurenius E, Garvare R,

Nyström ME, Small R, et al. Giving offspring a healthy start:

Parents’ experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change

during pregnancy and early parenthood. BMC Public Health

;11:936.

Kazemi AF, Hajian S, Ebrahimi‑Mameghani M, Khob MK. The

perspectives of pregnant women on health‑promoting behaviors:

An integrative systematic review. Int JWomen’s Health Reprod

Sci 2018;6:97‑105.

Rahimzadeh M, Rastegar H, Fazel Kalkhoran J. Prevalence and

causes of tendency to cigarette and water pipe smoking among

male and female physical education students in University of

Kurdistan. J Health 2016;7:680‑6.

Van der Merwe N, Banoobhai T, Gqweta A, Gwala A, Masiea T,

Misra M, et al. Hookah pipe smoking among health sciences

students. S Afr Med J 2013;103:847‑9.

Davaji RBO, Shahamat YD, Davaji FH, Mirkarimi K,

Charkazi A, Pahlavanzadeh B, et al. Patterns, beliefs, norms and perceived harms of hookah smoking in north Iran. Asian Pac J

Cancer Prev 2017;18:823‑30.

Mohammadi M, Rampal L, Sidik SM, Ibrahim N, Rahman HA,

Ghaleiha A. Prevalence and predictors of water pipe (Shisha) use

among Iranian high school children. Malays J Med Health Sci

;13:45‑53.

Ranjit A. Tobacco use among pregnant women in Nepal:

Prevalence and socio‑demographic determinants. Nepal:

University of Tampere; 2014.

Assari S, Chalian H, Bazargan M. Social determinants of hookah

smoking in the United States. J Ment Health Clin Psychol

;4:21‑7.

Primack BA, Mah J, Shensa A, Rosen D, Yonas MA, Fine MJ.

Associations between race, ethnicity, religion, and waterpipe

tobacco smoking. J Ethn Subst Abuse 2014;13:58‑71.

Stroud L, Werner E, Matteson K, Carey M, St Helen G,

Eissenberg T, et al. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco use in

pregnancy: Use, preferences and perceptions of flavours. Tob

Control 2020;29:62‑71.

Sadeghi R, Mahmoodabad S, Fallahzadeh H, Rezaeian M,

Bidaki R, Khanjani N. A systematic review about educational

interventions aimed to prevent hookah smoking. Int J Ayurvedic

Med 2019;10:14‑21.

Azodi F, Sharif F, Azodi P, Shirazi ZH, Khalili A, Jahanpour F.

The reasons of tendency toward hookah smoking among teens

and youth in Iran‑A qualitative study. Int JPharm SciRes

;9:1642‑6.

Krauss MJ, Sowles SJ, Moreno M, Zewdie K, Grucza RA,

Bierut LJ, et al. Hookah‑related twitter chatter: A content analysis.

Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:E121.doi: 10.5888/pcd12.150140.




ijpm_12_448