Waterpipe Smoking in Pregnant Women of Zahedan City in 2020: Prevalence and Associated Factors

Samira Khayat, Maryam Navaee, Hamed Fanaei, Farnoosh Khojasteh


Background: Waterpipe smoking is associated with maternal and fetal complications, and valid data contribute to evidence‑based planning. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and factors related with waterpipe smoking among pregnant women of Zahedan city in 2020.

Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in 2020, and 400 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy who lived in Zahedan participated in it by single stage randomized cluster sampling. A questionnaire was used to measure awareness of waterpipe complications, and another one investigated the status of waterpipe smoking to collect data. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used through SPSS 21.

Results: The findings indicated that the prevalence of waterpipe smoking was 18.8%. In the waterpipe smoking group, 46.6% smoked every day, 89.3% had tried to reduce the smoking, and 64.8% reported fetal death as their main motivation to reduce smoking. Only 5.6% of subjects stated receiving training as the reason for reduction of their waterpipe smoking. The women’s level of education, economic status, ethnicity, and awareness of the risks of waterpipe smoking were the predictors for waterpipe smoking (P < 0.05, P = 0.03, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: The results of this study show the high prevalence of waterpipe smoking in pregnant women of Zahedan. Further investigation and training in this regard are essential for pregnancy as well as pre‑pregnancy care. Special attention should be paid to groups with better economic status and level of education, Baluch women, and those with low level of awareness.


Iran; pregnancy; prevalence; tobacco; waterpipe smoking

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