Effects of Vegetables Consumption Before Carbohydrates on Blood Glucose and GLP-1 Levels Among Diabetic Patients in Indonesia

Dono Indarto, Dwi Nuzulia Rochmah, Budiyanti Wiboworini, Yoga Mulia Pratama, Yohanes Cakrapradipta Wibowo


Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the prominent public health issue. Pharmacotherapy and diet modification should be integrated into T2DM management.Aims: To investigate the effects of vegetables consumption before carbohydrates on blood glucose and GLP‑1 levels in T2DM patients.

Methods: A non‑randomized quasi experimental study was conducted to recruit T2DM patients who attended at the Gatot Soebroto Central Army Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from April to May 2016. The Lemeshow’s formula was used to determine sample size. A total of 12 non‑diabetic and 24 diabetic patients were participated in our study. Glucose levels were measured using a routine hexokinase method while serum GLP‑1 levels were determined using the ELISA. The student t‑test was used to compare two groups with parametric data. The significant difference was at P < 0.05.

Results: Our data showed that T2DM patients who consumed vegetables before carbohydrates, had relatively stable glucose levels at 0, 60 and 120 mins (164.25 ± 86.89 vs 183.5 ± 55.96 vs 167.83 ± 65.53, P = 0.163) and stay lowered within the normal range compared to T2DM patients who consumed vegetables after carbohydrates (165.08 ± 67.89 vs 241.92 ± 68.03 vs 204.92 ± 81.76, P = 0.022). Additionally, GLP‑1 levels remained stable after 60 and 120 min at day 1 (P = 0.816) and day 3 (P = 0.955).

Conclusions: Vegetables consumption before carbohydrate is a promising and simple method of diabetes diet for maintaining blood glucose and GLP‑1 levels and preventing from vascular complication.


Blood glucose level; glucagon‑like peptide 1; type 2 diabetes mellitus; vegetable consumption

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