Preventable Prenatal and Neonatal Risk Factors of Type 1 Diabetes in Childhood

Setila Dalili, Shahin Koohmanaee, Seyyedeh Golnaz Mirmonsef, Seyyed Amir Reza Nemati, Behrang Motamed, Manijeh Tabrizi, Mohammad Aghaeizadeh Zorouf, Afagh Hassanzadeh Rad


Background: Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease which is increasing in incidence, but little is known about the events that trigger the autoimmune process. Most of the time, these processes begin in prenatal and natal periods; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prenatal and neonatal risk factors of T1DM in childhood. Methods: This case‑control study has been performed on children with T1DM who referred to the 17th Shahrivar children’s hospital. The control group consisted of healthy siblings of the case group. Data were gathered using a form that included maternal and neonatal characteristics. Data were reported by descriptive statistics in SPSS 19. To investigate the effect of quantitative and qualitative variables on the development of T1DM, logistic regression and Chi‑square tests were used, respectively. Results: Birth weight, birth height, and maternal weight gain during pregnancy had a significant relationship with T1DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 2.57, and 1.14, respectively). In addition, there was a significant relationship between gestational hypertension (OR = 5.27), neonatal jaundice (OR = 3.42), cesarean section (OR = 2.06), and being non–first‑born child (OR = 2.32) and T1DM. Also, premature rupture of membrane, maternal urinary tract infection, and nonexclusive breastfeeding had a significant association with T1DM (OR = 4.37, 3.94, and 2.30, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between maternal age, sex, neonatal respiratory disease, prematurity, and neonatal infections and T1DM (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Prenatal and neonatal risk factors can have a significant role in the occurrence of TIDM. Therefore, considering these risk factors can have a preventive effect on T1DM.


Child; newborn; pregnancy; type 1 diabetes

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